Green tea may have a therapeutic and positive effect in reduced risk and progression and treatment of tuberculosis (TB), some scientists suggested.
Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Commonly, the bacteriium attacked the lung tissue but in some cases they also can cause major damage to other parts of the body.
The disease is very contagious, as types of bacteria that cause TB can spread from person to person through microscopic droplets released into the air.
In the investigation of the effect of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in risk of tuberculosis of a total of 200 newly diagnosed cases of AFB positive pulmonary tuberculosis, with 100 patients randomly received catechin (500 microg) with antitubercular treatment (ATT) (cases) and the other 100 received starch (500 microg) with ATT (control), researchers at the Chhatrapati Shahuji Maharaj Medical University found that CTN treatment group exerts a significant activity in reduced levels of free radical expression through reduced oxidative stress in compared to control, observed by analysis of the blood samples.
Further analysis suggested that green tea CTN treatment group restores the balances antioxidant and free radicals ratio by stimulated production of levels of enzymatic antioxidant (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase) and non enzymatic antioxidant (total thiol, reduced glutathione) levels and significant decreased expression of free radicals (lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide).
These results re-constituted the efficacy of crude catechin extract as adjuvant therapy in management of oxidative stress seen in pulmonary tuberculosis patients.
Moreover, in monitor the extent of oxidative stress in mice infected with M tuberculosis and the role of crude green tea extract in repairing the oxidative damage by divided them into three groups of normal, infected-untreated and infected-treated with 9 members in each group, scientists indicated that infectous untreated group exerted a significant enhancement of antioxidants produced by the natural defense of the body such as erythrocytic catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities along with elevated levels of free radical defenders such as erythrocytic total thiols but decreased levels of antioxidant activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione in erythrocytes and increased levels of free radicals plasma lipid peroxidation as compared to normal animals as expected.
These results suggested that non CTN tested mice exerted the protection against application of infectious agent selectively either through expression of natural antioxidant produced by the body or antioxidants produced by the body were inhibited by the injection substance.
Importantly, ingestion of green tea CTN upon 7 days in infectious mice group completely restored the normal values of antioxidants and ROS ratio observed by the oxidative stress parameters.
In other words, green tea treatment group showed an increased catalase, glutathione peroxidase, total thiol and decreased extent of lipid peroxidation with concomitant increase in the levels of SOD and glutathione in infected animals, thus reducing development of tuberculosis risk.
The above differentiation were supported by the Department of Experimental Medicine and Biotechnology, Chandigarh in the study to determine whether or not polyphenols derived from green tea could down-regulate tryptophan-aspartate containing coat protein (TACO) gene transcription in reduced uptake/survival of M. tuberculosis within macrophages.
TACO gene transcription allows mycobacterial entry/survival within a mobile white blood cell, especially at sites of infection.of the innate immune system,
According to the reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and reporter assay technology, application of major component of green tea polyphenols, epigallocatechin-3-gallate EGCG reduced expression of TACO gene transcription within white blood cells in the immune system through its ability in inhibited Sp1 transcription factor in initiation of infectious cellular processes.
Sp1 transcription factor plays an important role in cell differentiation, cell growth, apoptosis, immune responses.
Dr. Anand PK, the lead authors, said, "The down-regulation of TACO gene expression by epigallocatechin-3-gallate was accompanied by inhibition of mycobacterium survival within macrophages as assessed through flow cytometry and colony counts" and "epigallocatechin-3-gallate may be of importance in the prevention of tuberculosis infection".
Taken together, green tea and its bioactive polyphenols in attenuated risk and treatment of tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis may contribute significantly to the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis in third world countries where the conventional medicine are scarce or un-affordable to general population.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.
(1) Effect of green tea extract (catechins) in reducing oxidative stress seen in patients of pulmonary tuberculosis on DOTS Cat I regimen by Agarwal A1, Prasad R, Jain A.(PubMed)
(2) Protective effect of green tea extract against the erythrocytic oxidative stress injury during mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in mice by Guleria RS1, Jain A, Tiwari V, Misra MK.(PubMed)
(3) Green tea polyphenol inhibits Mycobacterium tuberculosis survival within human macrophages by Anand PK1, Kaul D, Sharma M.(PubMed)