Thursday, 8 February 2018

The Best Studied Proof Foods in Induced Weight Loss and Weight Control

Kyle J. Norton

Today, the prevalence of extremely overweight and obese children caused by unhealthy diet and life style change over 2 decades of economic prosperity, in the South East Asian population has raised concerns of scientific community,

Overweight and obesity have reached epidemic proportions in many countries, affecting even younger age populations inducing economic burden in health care system for treatment of obesity-related disorders such as diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases(1).

 One of six Malaysian are either extreme overweight or obese, according to Datin Paduka Santha Kumari, chairman of the Selangor branch of the Malaysian Diabetes Association and according to global health observatory, at least 2.8 million people die each year as a result of being overweight or obese, and an estimated 35.8 million (2.3%) of global DALYs are caused by overweight or obesity, worldwide(2).

Epidemiological studies, linking herbal medicine, foods and vitamins in preventing and treating these diseases have been inconclusive(a)/

Some researchers suggested that intake of certain herbal medicine may enhance appetite suppression.

According to the Georgetown University Medical Center, average daily food intake was decreased in some the herbal formulation, in comparison of the effectiveness among herbal formulation and a commonly available(3).

Other researchers insisted that using herbs and supplements to induce weight loss should be taken with care, as a considerable number of reports have been published on hepatotoxicity associated with herbal products attributed with weight-reducing properties(4)(5)(6)(7).

The College of Medicine, The Ohio State University insisted that various dietary, lifestyle, and psychologic factors are involved in the etiology of Prameha(including clinical conditions involved in obesity, prediabetes, diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome), particularly in relation to disturbances of fat and carbohydrate metabolism(8), therefore, without effective management, obtaining a workable weight loss plan may be extremely difficult.

1. Oats
Oat is a species of cereal grain grown for its seed cultivated all over the world, especially in Scotland and England. Normally, oat is planted in the poor soil after crops are harvested in the Fall(30).

Oat, rich in beta-glucan, may hold a magic power in regulated metabolism and hepatoprotective effect.

According to Chung-Shan Medical University, consumption of oat reduced obesity, abdominal fat, and improved lipid profiles and liver functions with no adverse effects(31).

 Whole-grain ready-to-eat oat cereal, in a randomized study of 144 free-living, overweight and obese adults (N=204, body mass index 25 to 45) with baseline LDL cholesterol levels 130 to 200 mg/dL, exerted significantly favorable effects on fasting lipid levels and waist circumference(32).

Other study suggested that at-derived beta-glucan, combined with moderate exercise also improved lipid profile and factlitated a decrease in weight(33).

2. Salmon
Salmon is the common name for Salmonidae,  born in fresh water, migrated to the ocean, then travelling thousands of miles in the deep sea cold water throughout their life cycle and within five years returning to the exacted location where they were born to reproduce and die(34).

Dietary salmon oil, in rat study showed to reduce weight loss of CXB-E and -H tested mice, but induced with weight gain in recombinant inbred strains.

This findings may suggest that body weight response to salmonoil feeding is controlled by multiple genes(35).

A novel oral form of salmoncalcitonin (sCT), according to the study at Nordic Bioscience, hold a profound and positive effect in improved fasting and postprandial glycemic control and insulin sensitivity and may be considered as a promising agent for treatment of obesity-related insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes patients(36)(37).

3. Brown rice
Brown rice or unpolished rice is a kind of whole, natural grain with very brown color with only the outermost layer of the rice kernel are removed, thus preventing the lost of nutrients(38).

The study of the weigh effect of brown rice on metabolic parameters in type 2 diabetes, showed a positive effect brown rice(LB) of consumption in decreased waist circumference in tested subjects(39).

In a randomized study of forty women between 20 and 35 years of age to compare white rice and mixed rice in weight control, including brown rice, indicated that meal replacement with mixed rice was superior in replaced white rice in weight control and improved antioxidant enzyme activity(40).

4. Chicken
Chicken are domesticated fowl belongings to the subspecies of Gallus domesticus, raised all over the world for its delicious meats and eggs with tons of nutrients(41).

In the comparison of weight loss and total lipid profile changes in overweight women consuming beef or chicken, researchers at Rippe Lifestyle Institute, Shrewsbury showed that weight loss and improved lipid profile can be accomplished through diet and exercise, regardless to dietary protein source including lean beef or chicken(42).

But the study at University of Navarra, showed an opposite result of weight loss and improved lipid profile in participants with frequent consumption of selenium-enriched chicken meat(43). The efficacy in reduced weight loss was probably associated to the presence of antioxidant selenium in the meat.

5. Water
According to Virginia Tech, consuming 500 ml water prior to each main meal may lead to greater weight loss than a hypocaloric diet alone in middle-aged and older adults, because water intake expressed an acutely reduced meal energy intake(EI)(44). However, these result did not apply to younger subjects(45).

The Choose Healthy Options Consciously Everyday (CHOICE) randomized clinical trial, suggested that replacing caloric beverages with water or diet beverages induced 2% to 2.5% weight loss(46).

6. Nuts
Dietary consumption of nuts with rich sources of multiple nutrients is associated with health benefits and weight loss, epidemiologically.

Pistachio nuts, a member of the cashew family, can be consumed as a portion-controlled snack for individuals restricting calories to lose weight without concern that pistachios will cause weight gain (48).

But in well-controlled nut-feeding trials, no changes in body weight were observed(47).

7. Green tea
Green tea containing more amount of antioxidants than any drinks or food with the same volume is the leaves of Camellia sinensis, undergone minimal oxidation during processing, originated from China.

Green tea has been a precious drink in traditional Chinese culture and used exceptional in socialization for more than 4000 thousand years. Because of their health benefits, they have been cultivated for commercial purposes all over the world.

According to Maastricht University, caffeine intake and green tea supplementation are associated to improve weight maintenance, partly through thermogenesis and fat oxidation, in a randomized placebo-controlled double blind parallel trial in 76 overweight and moderately obese subjects(49).

Catechins, the antioxidants found abundantly in green tea, significantly decreased body weight and  maintained body weight after a period of weight loss, depending to the moderators of habitual caffeine intake and ethnicity(50).

Contrast to the above studies, in a high-protein diet, green tea-caffeine mixture, failed to exert the same effect on body weight maintenance(51).

8. Coffee
Coffee made from the roasted seeds of the genus Coffee, belongings to the family Rubiaceae native to southern Arabia.

In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, linear dose, crossover study, green coffee extract, consistent with human and animal studies and a meta-analysis exhibited an effective nutraceutical in reduced weight in pre obese adults(52).

Mannooligosaccharides (MOS), extracted from coffee, expressed a potential functional use for weight management and improvement in adipose tissue distribution, but varying in gender(53)

Unfortunately, green coffee extract (GCE), according to University of Exeter, in reviews of the effect against weight loss of existed data, showed a significant poor methodological quality and suggested that more rigorous trials are needed to assess the usefulness of GCE as a weight losstool(54).

 Other study reported a case of Brazil Potent slimming coffee and some weight-loss products may be contaminated with sibutramine(55).

Taken together. we can conclude that certain foods may hold magic functions in reduced and managed weight loss for obese individual but weight loss can not be in the expenses of intake of nutrients(30a).

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Author BiographyBy Kyle J. Norton
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Rising Burden of Obesity in Asia by Ambady Ramachandran and Chamukuttan Snehalatha(Journey of Obesity)
(2) Obesity - Situation and trends(WHO)
(3) Influence of a combination of herbs on appetite suppression and weight loss in rats by Talpur NA1, Echard BW, Manohar V, Preuss HG.(PubMed)
(4) [Hepatotoxicity induced by herbs and medicines used to induce weight loss].[Article in Spanish]by Herrera S1, Bruguera M.(PubMed)
(5) A case report of adult lead toxicity following use of Ayurvedic herbal medication by Breeher L1, Gerr F, Fuortes L.(PubMed)
(6) [Chronic lead intoxication associated with Ayurvedic medication].[Article in Dutch] by Kanen BL1, Perenboom RM.(PubMed)
(7) Potential toxicity of caffeine when used as a dietary supplement for weight loss by Pendleton M1, Brown S, Thomas C, Odle B.(PubMed)
(8) Multinutrient supplement containing ephedra and caffeine causes weight loss and improves metabolic risk factors in obese women: a randomized controlled trial by Hackman RM1, Havel PJ, Schwartz HJ, Rutledge JC, Watnik MR, Noceti EM, Stohs SJ, Stern JS, Keen CL.(PubMed)
(30) #Healthy #Foods - Oats ((Avena sativa) (Health tips for better living and living health)
(31a) Association between mood and diet quality in subjects with metabolic syndrome participating in a behavioural weight-loss programme: A cross-sectional assessment by Perez-Cornago A, Zulet MA, Martinez JA.(PubMed)
(31b) Dietary quality-adherence to the dietary guidelines in Tehranian adolescents: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study by Mirmiran P1, Azadbakht L, Azizi F.(PubMed)
(31) Oat prevents obesity and abdominal fat distribution, and improves liver function in humans by Chang HC1, Huang CN, Yeh DM, Wang SJ, Peng CH, Wang CJ.(PubMed)
(32) Whole-grain ready-to-eat oat cereal, as part of a dietary program for weight loss, reduces low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in adults with overweight and obesity more than a dietary program including low-fiber control foods by Maki KC1, Beiseigel JM, Jonnalagadda SS, Gugger CK, Reeves MS, Farmer MV, Kaden VN, Rains TM.(PubMed)
(33) Oat-derived beta-glucan significantly improves HDLC and diminishes LDLC and non-HDL cholesterol in overweight individuals with mild hypercholesterolemia, Reyna-Villasmil N1, Bermúdez-Pirela V, Mengual-Moreno E, Arias N, Cano-Ponce C, Leal-Gonzalez E, Souki A, Inglett GE, Israili ZH, Hernández-Hernández R, Valasco M, Arraiz N.(PubMed)
(34) #Healthy #Foods - Seafoods - Salmon (Healthy tips for better living and living health)
(35) Genetically determined body weight loss in mice fed diets containing salmon oil by LeBoeuf RC1, Veldee MS.(PubMed)
(36) Oral salmon calcitonin improves fasting and postprandial glycemic control in lean healthy rats by Feigh M1, Nielsen RH, Hansen C, Henriksen K, Christiansen C, Karsdal MA.(PubMed)
(37) A novel oral form of salmon calcitonin improves glucose homeostasis and reduces body weight in diet-induced obese rats by Feigh M1, Henriksen K, Andreassen KV, Hansen C, Henriksen JE, Beck-Nielsen H, Christiansen C, Karsdal MA.(PubMed)
(38) #Healthy #Foods - Whole Grain - Brown rice or Hulled rice's(Health tips for beter living and living health)
(39) Intake of brown rice lees reduces waist circumference and improves metabolic parameters in type 2 diabetes by Kim TH1, Kim EK, Lee MS, Lee HK, Hwang WS, Choe SJ, Kim TY, Han SJ, Kim HJ, Kim DJ, Lee KW.(PubMed)
(40) Meal replacement with mixed rice is more effective than white rice in weight control, while improving antioxidant enzyme activity in obese women by Kim JY1, Kim JH, Lee da H, Kim SH, Lee SS.(PubMed)
(41) #Healthy #Foods - Chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus)(Health tips for btter living and living health)
(42) Weight loss and total lipid profile changes in overweight women consuming beef or chicken as the primary protein source by Melanson K1, Gootman J, Myrdal A, Kline G, Rippe JM.(PubMed)
(43) Frequent consumption of selenium-enriched chicken meat by adults causes weight loss and maintains their antioxidant status by Navas-Carretero S1, Cuervo M, Abete I, Zulet MA, Martínez JA.(PubMed)
(44) Water consumption increases weight loss during a hypocaloric diet intervention in middle-aged and older adults by Dennis EA1, Dengo AL, Comber DL, Flack KD, Savla J, Davy KP, Davy BM(PubMed)
(45) Pre-meal water consumption reduces meal energy intake in older but not younger subjects by

Van Walleghen EL1, Orr JS, Gentile CL, Davy BM.(PubMed)
(46) Replacing caloric beverages with water or diet beverages for weight loss in adults: main results of the Choose Healthy Options Consciously Everyday (CHOICE) randomized clinical trial by Tate DF1, Turner-McGrievy G, Lyons E, Stevens J, Erickson K, Polzien K, Diamond M, Wang X, Popkin B.(PubMed)
(47) Nut consumption and body weight by Sabaté J.(PubMed)
(48) Pistachio nuts reduce triglycerides and body weight by comparison to refined carbohydrate snack in obese subjects on a 12-week weight lossprogram by Li Z1, Song R, Nguyen C, Zerlin A, Karp H, Naowamondhol K, Thames G, Gao K, Li L, Tseng CH, Henning SM, Heber(PubMed)
(48) Impact of peanuts and tree nuts on body weight and healthy weight loss in adults by Mattes RD1, Kris-Etherton PM, Foster GD.(PubMed)
(49) Body weight loss and weight maintenance in relation to habitual caffeine intake and green tea supplementation by Westerterp-Plantenga MS1, Lejeune MP, Kovacs EM.(PubMed)
(50) The effects of green tea on weight loss and weight maintenance: a meta-analysis by Hursel R1, Viechtbauer W, Westerterp-Plantenga MS.(PubMed)
(51) Green tea catechin plus caffeine supplementation to a high-protein diet has no additional effect on body weight maintenance after weight loss by Hursel R1, Westerterp-Plantenga MS.(PubMed)
(52) Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, linear dose, crossover study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a green coffee bean extract in overweight subjects by Vinson JA1, Burnham BR, Nagendran MV.(PubMed)
(53) A weight-loss diet including coffee-derived mannooligosaccharides enhances adipose tissue loss in overweight men but not women, by St-Onge MP1, Salinardi T, Herron-Rubin K, Black RM.(PubMed)
(54) The use of green coffee extract as a weight loss supplement: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials by Onakpoya I1, Terry R, Ernst E.(PubMed)
(55) [Life-threatening psychosis caused by using sibutramine-contaminated weight-loss coffee].

[Article in Dutch] by Bertholee D1, ter Horst PG, Wieringa A, Smit JP.(PubMed)

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