Wednesday, 21 February 2018

Food Therapy: Fennel In Ameliorated Risk, Progression and Treatment of Breast Cancer

Kyle J. Norton

Fennel may have a potential and therapeutic effect in reduced risk and treatment of breast cancer, some scientists suggested.

Breast cancer is a medical condition characterized by cell growth disorderly and uncontrollably in the breast tissue. At the later stage, cancerous cells may travel  a distance away to infect other healthy tissue and organs.

Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) is a plant species of genus, belongings to Apiaceae (Umbelliferae), native to the Mediterranean, used in traditional and herbal medicine as warming, carminative, antispasmodic, antidepressant agent and to stimulate the appetite, ease indigestion, soothe coughing, reduce intestinal spasms, to regulate the menstrual cycle and relieve PMS,...

1. Carbohydrates
2. Fiber
3. Protein
4. Thiamine (Vitamin B1)
5. Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)
6. Niacin (Vitamin B3)
7. Pantothenic acid (B5)
8. Vitamin B6
9. Folate (Vitamin B9)
10. Vitamin C
11. Calcium
12. Copper
13. Iron
14. Magnesium
15. Molybdenum
16. Phosphorus
17. Potassium
18. Zinc
19. Etc.

In the evaluation of the essential oil extracted from fennel activity in human breast cancer cell line (MDA-Mb), researchers found that application of fennel extract exerted a significant effect in inhibition of the expression of cancer cell line at dose of lower than f lower than 10 μg/mL with IC50.

According to the University of Malaya in investigation of  the DNA protecting activity and inhibition of nicotine-induced cancer cell migration of 9 spices, fennel exerted a potential effect in protection of the DNA integrity and inhibition of nicotine-induced cancer cell migration against Murine fibroblasts (3T3-L1) and human breast cancer (MCF-7) cells pre-treated with spice extracts and then exposed to H₂O₂ and nicotine.

Additional analysis suggested that the result of inhibition was attributed to fennel antioxidants of phenols and flavonoids in ameliorated H2O2 in initiated chain activity in induction of cytotoxicity in altered DNA of the experiment cell line.

Some researchers suggested that overproduction of hydrogen peroxide may serve as a prodrug in the presence of transition metal ions, in induced production of highly reactive hydroxyl radicals to initiated DNA damage in precipitated apoptosis.

In other words, application of highly oxidative hydrogen peroxide in breast caner cell line may cause a significant cytotoxic effect in the cancer cell death.

These results demonstrated the correlation of increase of apoptosis with the rise in generation of reactive oxygen species in cancer cells.

Due to this potential activity, some researchers suggested that hydrogen peroxide overproduced in tumor cells can serve as a prodrug for the treatment of cancer.

On the other hand, application of H2O2 in healthy cell may induce DNA damage in initiation of cancer cell development.

Furthermore, fennel scored a statistically significant DNA protecting activity in compared to other spices, such as at ginger with 50 μg/ml in reduced 68% of DNA damage in 3T3-L1 cells.

However, Fennel exerted a lesser effect in inhibited cancer MCF-7 cells with nicotine induced cell migration in compared to other spices such as pepper, long pepper and ginger.

The above differentiation were supported by the joint study lead by the Avicenna Tajik State Medical University, in evaluation of the antioxidant effect of essential oil of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) against MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma).

According to the result from Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis, fennel displayed a moderated antioxidant in precipitated cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma) with IC50 values between 30-210 mg L-1 in compared to cytotoxic reference compounds.

In fact, the efficacy of fennel essential oil in inhibited the breast caner proliferation and migration was attributed to the presence of lipophilic secondary metabolites and anise aldehyde, which have a potential in elevated the interference with molecular targets in cells by fennel antioxidant compounds such as anethole.  

Taken together, fennel and its bioactive compound may be considered as a function foods in reduced risk, progression and treatment of breast cancer. However, intake of fennel supplement should be taken with extreme care in prevented liver acute toxicity.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrients, All right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Analysis and evaluation of the antimicrobial and anticancer activities of the essential oil isolated from Foeniculum vulgare from Hamedan, Iran by Akhbari M1, Kord R1, Jafari Nodooshan S2, Hamedi S3.(PubMed)
(2) Cytotoxicity of the Essential Oil of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) from Tajikistan by Sharopov F1,2, Valiev A3, Satyal P4, Gulmurodov I5, Yusufi S6, Setzer WN7, Wink M8.(PubMed)
(3) Dietary spices protect against hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage and inhibit nicotine-induced cancer cell migration by Jayakumar R1, Kanthimathi MS.(PubMed)

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