Thursday, 8 February 2018

Food Therapy: Fennel and its Bioactive Anehtole in Attenuated Risk, Progression and Treatment of Periodontitis (PD)

Kyle J. Norton

Fennel may have a therapeutic effect in reduced risk, progression and treatment of periodontitis, some scientists suggested.

Periodontitis (PD) is a dental condition characterized by inflammation of the tissue around the teeth, resulted in shrinkage of the gums and loosening of the teeth if untreated.

Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) is a plant species of genus, belongings to Apiaceae (Umbelliferae), native to the Mediterranean, used in traditional and herbal medicine as warming, carminative, antispasmodic, antidepressant agent and to stimulate the appetite, ease indigestion, soothe coughing, reduce intestinal spasms, to regulate the menstrual cycle and relieve PMS,...

Nutrients
1. Carbohydrates
2. Fiber
3. Protein
4. Thiamine (Vitamin B1)
5. Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)
6. Niacin (Vitamin B3)
7. Pantothenic acid (B5)
8. Vitamin B6
9. Folate (Vitamin B9)
10. Vitamin C
11. Calcium
12. Copper
13. Iron
14. Magnesium
15. Molybdenum
16. Phosphorus
17. Potassium
18. Zinc

In the investigation of bacterial Eschericia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 30 µg) injected bilaterally into the palatal gingiva (3 µL/site) between the upper first and second molars every two days for 10 days in anesthetized rats, researchers found that application of trans-anethole, an bioactive found in fennel or ketoprofen (10 mg/Kg, i.p.) started 20 minute before LPS injection and continued for 10 days, exert a significant activity in decreased bacterial infection in induced symptoms of swelling, redness, pain,....

Further analysis suggested that both injections display significantly suppressed levels of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), a cytokine with function in regulation of immune and inflammatory responses to infections or sterile insults and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α ), a cell signaling protein involved in systemic inflammation in the acute phase of infection, in compared to Eschericia coli lipopolysaccharide treated rats group.

Moreover, researchers also indicated that bioactive tran-anethole demonstrates a similar effect to rats group treated with conventional medicine ketoprofen without inducing any side effects.

Also in the examine the continuous investigation of trans- anethole effect in modified periodontitis (PD) through the expression of the voltage-gated L-type Ca2+ channel and KCa2+ channels function, showed that administration of fennel bioactive compound also ameliorated the function of
of LPS in induced inflammatory molecules production by.inhibiting above channels expression.

Trans-anethole also attenuated the levels of substance P, bradykinin, histamine and serotonin in facilitated the production of pro-inflammatory factors such as IL-1β and TNF-α in initiated and progression of periodontitis.

Additionally, in the evaluation of chewing the fennel and cardamom seeds on plaque and salivary pH in 50 patients with periodontitis, aged 18-60 years attending V.S dental College and Hospital randomized in to two groups for chewing fennel and cardamom seeds. Salivary pH and plaque PH at baseline and immediately after chewing seeds for 5 minutes and after 10 min researchers indicated that the mean salivary PH scores at baseline, immediately and 10 minutes after chewing fennel seeds was 7.1, 7,3 and 7.5 and the mean salivary PH scores at baseline, immediately and 10 minutes after chewing cardamom seeds was 7.4 , 7.6 , 7.76, in compared to the the mean values of salivary PH scores at baseline, immediately and 10 minutes after chewing cardamom seeds was 7.4 , 7.6 , 7.76 and the mean plaque pH scores at baseline, immediately and 10 min after chewing fennel seeds was 7.4, 7.55, 7.53.

These findings suggested that chewing both fennel seeds and cardamom seeds are equally effective in increasing salivary and plaque pH.

Dr. Priti Basgauda Patil and colleagues said, "saliva, as a mirror of oral and systemic health, is a valuable source for clinically relevant information because it contains biomarkers specific for the unique physiologic aspects of periodontal diseases".

Increased salivary reduced levels of total free sialic acid are associated to decreased risk of periodontitis initiation.

Long term expression of low plaque pH is also associated to loss of mineral from the tooth, one of many factors in increased periodontitis risk.

These results postulated an important role of chewing the seeds can be used to lubricate and moisten the mouth, while at the same time providing caries protection to highly susceptible individuals with periodontitis (PD).

The evidences finding suggest that fennel and its bioactive anethole may have a potent inhibitory effect in reduced risk, progression and treatment of PD through suppression of pro-inflammatory molecules. However, ingestion of supplement should be taken with to avoid overdose in precipitated acute liver toxicity.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrients, All right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.


Sources
(1) Anethole, a Medicinal Plant Compound, Decreases the Production of Pro-Inflammatory TNF-α and IL-1β in a Rat Model of LPS-Induced Periodontitis byJanet Moradi,a Fatemeh Abbasipour,a,b,* Jalal Zaringhalam,c Bita Maleki,a Narges Ziaee,a Amin Khodadoustan,d and Mahyar Janahmadic(PMC)
(2) EFFECT OF CHEWING FENNEL AND CARDAMOM SEEDS ON DENTAL PLAQUE AND SALIVARY pH – A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL bySwathi V., R. Rekha, Abhishek Jha, G. Radha, S. K. Pallavi and Gadde Praveen(INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF 
PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES AND RESEARCH)
(3) Saliva: A diagnostic biomarker of periodontal diseases by Priti Basgauda Patil and Basgauda Ramesh Patil(PMC)

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