Wednesday, 14 February 2018

The Science of Root Vegetables: Carrot and its Bioactive Compounds in Prevention and Treatment of Breast cancer

Kyle J. Norton

Carrots may have a profound and positive effect in reduced risk, progression and treatment of breast cancer, some scientists suggested.

Breast cancer is a condition characterized by cell growth disorderly and uncontrollably in breast tissue. At the later stage, the cancerous cells may infect other healthy tissue and organ a distance away from the original site.

Carrot, a root vegetable with orange color is  a sub spices of Daucus carota, belongings to the family Apiaceae, native to Asian and Europe.

Nutritional Benefits 
1. Carbohydrates
2. Sugars
3. Fibre
4. Fat
5. Protein
6. Vitamin A
7. Thiamine (VittaminB1)
8. Riboflavin (Vittamin B2)
9. Niacin (Vittamin B3)
10. Vitamin B6
11. Folate (Vittamin B9)
12. Vitamin C
13. Vitamin K
14. Calcium
15. Iron
16. Magnesium
17. Molybdenum
18. Phosphorus
19. Potassium
20. Sodium

In the review of carrot fractions' anticancer activities in vitro and in vivo, researchers found that pentane/diethyl ether (50:50) isolated from carrot express a significant anti cancer activity against various tumors, including on lung, skin, breast and glioblastoma cancer cell.

Further analysis, application of the ether demonstrated a pronounced inhibition of mobility of above 4 cancer cell lines through an decrease cancer cell invasion and increased cell adhesion.

Also, pentane/diethyl ether (50:50) decreased activation of the Rho family of GTPases, a family of small GTP-binding proteins with function in initiated cancer mobility involved in cell migration, transcription, and proliferation and hyperactivation of Cdc42 with function in stimulated the development, progression, and metastasis of breast cancer.

Over expression of levels of Cdc42 is found in patients with breast cancer tissue in compared to healthy women.

Dr. Zgheib P, after taking into account of other con founder, said, " the treatment (of pentane/diethyl ether ) induced decrease in cell motility" and "(These results) demonstrates a crucial effect of the DC pentane/diethyl ether fraction on cancer cell motility and metastasis".

Additionally, in human breastadenocarcinoma cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7, administration of Daucus carota oil extract (DCOE) fractions, namely, the pentane fraction (F1) and 1:1 pentane:diethyl ether fraction (F2) exerted potential anti both cancer lines through induction of cytotoxicity.

According to the Flow cytometric assay, both factions of carrot induced cell cycle arrest in the sub-G1 phase and increased apoptotic cell death.

In Western blot, F1 and F2 also promoted the increase in apoptosis through increase in BAX in suppressed the tumor proliferation and decrease in Bcl-2 levels in promoted anti breast cancer apoptosis and caspase-3 nd poly ADP ribose polymerase in activated death protease through cell cycle arrest.

Also, both factions also increased chromatin condensation in facilitated cell apoptosis observed  by chromatin activity of cancer cells undergone of phase change from a heterogeneous, genetically active network to an inert, highly condensed form.

Interestingly, injection of F1 and F2 in MDA-MB-231 cells did not significantly reduce the level of phosphorylated Erk and phosphorylated Akt protein in induction of cancer cellular process involved cancer cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival.

In other words, F1 and F2 inhibited expression and proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells through  mediating a variety of biological responses including cell growth, proliferation and survival through phosphorylated Erk pathway without alternated expression of phosphorylated Akt proteins.

Moreover, observation of combined treatment with wortmannin, a potent PI3K inhibitor and F1 or F2 fraction revealed that two drugs work on different pathways in the synergistically inhibitory effect on cell survival.

The above differentiation were supported by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences in estimate nutrients intake in nine questions on food and supplement in a population-based case-control study of breast cancer risk conducted in Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Wisconsin in 1988-1991 with data for 3543 cases and 9406 controls.

According to the results, eating carrots or spinach more than twice weekly was associated with an relative odds ratio of 0.56 in compared with no intake.

However, these data did not distinguish among several potential explanations for the protective association observed between intake of carrots and spinach and risk of breast cancer but consistent with a diet rich in these foods having a modest protective effect.

The result findings strongly suggested that long term intake of carrot in moderate amounts may have substantial implication in prevention and treatment of breast cancer. But Intake of carrot supplement should be taken with care to prevent acute liver toxicity.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrients, All right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Daucus carota Pentane/Diethyl Ether Fraction Inhibits Motility and Reduces Invasion of CancerCells by Zgheib P1, Daher CF, Mroueh M, Nasrallah A, Taleb RI, El-Sibai M.(PubMed)
(2) Daucus carota pentane-based fractions arrest the cell cycle and increase apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells by Shebaby WN, Mroueh M, Bodman-Smith K, Mansour A, Taleb RI, Daher CF, El-Sibai M1.(PubMed)
(3)Intake of carrots, spinach, and supplements containing vitamin A in relation to risk of breast cancer by Longnecker MP1, Newcomb PA, Mittendorf R, Greenberg ER, Willett WC.(PubMed)

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