Sunday, 4 February 2018

Herbal Therapy: Anise, The Hepatoprotective Effects Functional Herb

Kyle J. Norton 

Anise may have a potential and substantial protective effect in preventd liver damage and diseases, some scientists suggested.

 is a flowering plant ofthe species of Pimpinella anisum, genus Pimpinella, belongings to the family Apiaceae native to to Egypt and the Mediterranean region, used in traditional herbal medicine as fragrance in soaps, oils, and mouth fresheners and stomachic, anti-septic, anti-spasmodic, ....

Chemical comstituents
Anethole, D-pinene, I-phellandrene, Alpha-terpineol, Safrol, Methyl chavicol, Resin, Shikimic acid, etc.

Liver disease is medical condition characterized by damage or injure of the liver tissues, affecting 1 in 4 Canadians, according to statistic. The disease can also be inherited genetically from the parent.
In the evaluation of the liver protective effect of Anise in the mice induced liver toxicity by injection of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), researchers found that Anise application significantly reduced production of reactive oxygen species in the liver tissue in initiated a chain reaction to induced tissue damage through its antioxidants activities, observed by oxidative stress markers.

The hetapoprotective effects of Anise not only protected against liver necrosis but also correlated with elevated serum IL-6 cytokine in response to infections and tissue injuries and in contributed to host defense through the stimulation of acute phase infection without inducing inflammation and activated hepatic STAT3 in faciliated lipid perioxidation.

Administered Anise also reduced oxidative stress in expression of several oxidative markers including liver Malondialdehyde (MDA), serum Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels through increased levels of hepatic antioxidants such as SOD and catalase in compared to non treated group.

Additionally, in the study of a total 36 Sprague-Dawley rats allocated into five groups with group I, II, and III received isotonic saline solution, olive oil and CCl4, repestively and group IV received both Silibinin and CCl4 and  group V with injection of  Anise seed extract (PFO) and CCl4, researchers at the end study found that rats treated with CCL4 exhibited a significant liver damage through observation of levels of makers of liver AST and ALT.

Rats treated with Anise seed extract (PFO) revealed a lower of serum AST and ALT levels in compared to those in the CCl4 group, although this was not as low as those in the silibinin group.

Moreover application of concentrations (1-1000 µg/ml) of essential oil and hydroalcoholic and n-hexane extracts isolated from Pimpinella anisum (anise), 1 h before the addition of 100 mM of CCl4, researchers indicated that liver cytotoxicity induced by injection of CCL4 was significant decreased by antioxidant activity of n-hexane extract with concentrations of 10-50 µg/ml.

However, administration of anise extracts and essential oil was found supprisingly in induced liver toxic effect with concentrations over 50 mµ/ml.

This result suggested that Pimpinella anisum. exhibited hepatoprotective effect against foreign substance in precipitated liver damage in doses dependent manner.

In other words, over doses of essential oil and hydroalcoholic and n-hexane extracts isolated from Anise can cause acute liver toxicity.

Taking altogether, Anise with abundant phytochemicals may be considered as a functional herb for reduced risk and assisted standard therapy for treatment of liver diseases, depending to further evaluation.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrients, All right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) An in vivo and in vitro investigation on hepatoprotective effects of Pimpinellaanisum seed essential oil and extracts against carbon tetrachloride-induced toxicity by Jamshidzadeh A1, Heidari R2, Razmjou M3, Karimi F3, Moein MR4, Farshad O5, Akbarizadeh AR6, Shayesteh MR3(PubMed)
(2) Hepatoprotective Effects of Pimpinella anisum Seed Extract in Rats Nureddin Cengiza Hanefi Özbekb, Aydın Himc(Pharmacologyonline 3: 870-874 (2008))
(3) Hepatoprotective effect of pimpinella anisum seed essential oil and extracts against CCl4 induced toxicity on HepG2 cellsby Akram Jamshidzadeh, Mahmoodreza Moein, Amin Reza Akbarizadeh, Niloufar Tahghighi Ahmadi(Research gate)

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