Thursday, 22 February 2018

Herbal Therapy: Herbal Anise and Its Bioactive Anethole in Attenuated Risk, Progression and Treatment of Osteoporosis

Kyle J. Norton

Anise may have a potential and substantial effect in reduced risk and progression and treatment of osteoporopsis, some scientists suggested.

Anise is a flowering plant ofthe species of Pimpinella anisum, genus Pimpinella, belongings to the family Apiaceae native to to Egypt and the Mediterranean region, used in traditional herbal medicine as fragrance in soaps, oils, and mouth fresheners and stomachic, anti-septic, anti-spasmodic, ....

Chemical comstituents
Anethole, D-pinene, I-phellandrene, Alpha-terpineol, Safrol, Methyl chavicol, Resin, Shikimic acid, etc.

In the investigation of the herbal selective estrogen receptor modulators or SERMs effect in risk of osteoporosis, in comparison of plant aqueous extracts derived from Greek flora (Sideritis euboea, Sideritis clandestina, Marticaria chamomilla, and Pimpinella anisum), researchers at the Medical School, University of Athens found that all extracts exert profound activities in stimulated the differentiation and mineralization of osteoblastic cell culture.

Further analysis, also discovered that all plant extracts at concentration range 10-100 microg/mL, including Anise induced  osteoblastic cell differentiation in formation of bone and improved bone density.

These result indicated that Anise and other plant extracts may comprise a substantial anti estrogenic effect in reduced risk of osteoporosis in dose dependent manner.

Also, in the evaluation of (E)-anethole, major bioactive compound isolated from Anise  protective effect on H2O2-induced alterations in collagen metabolism, researchers showed that application of anethole of 0.5 µM  for 1 h completely prevent the alternation of cells treated with 300 µM H2O2 in displayed a decrease in collagen biosynthesis of 54 %, correlated with alterations of type I collagen mRNA expression in the osteoblasts in initiated higher bone turn over.

Additionally differentiation also revealed that Anise anethole administration at 10 µM, exerts most efficient suppression in ameliorated expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 caused by H2O2 induced alterations in collagen metabolism, in contributed to the 8 % decrease in the amount of collagen secreted into the medium.

The result suggested that application of H2O2 not only directly activates MMPs, but also causes a decreased in the expression of their inhibitors, such as TIMP2, a metastasis suppressor in initiated alterations of collagen metabolism in bone.

In Other words, anethole isolated from Anise attenuated ROS causes an increased activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in degraded collagen in fibroblasts.
Some researchers suggested, "the loss of MMP-9 improved the connectivity density of the trabeculae, whereas the loss of MMP-2 reduced this parameter. Similar differential effects in architecture were observed in the L5 vertebra, but bone volume fraction was lower for both MMP-2 and MMP-9 (in mice study) "

Taken together, Anise and its bioactive anethole may be considered as a functional herb for reduced risk and treatment of osteoporosis caused by collagen loss in skin and bone. However, intake of Anise supplement should be taken with extreme care in prevented toxicity.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrients, All right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Greek plant extracts exhibit selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM)-like properties by Kassi E1, Papoutsi Z, Fokialakis N, Messari I, Mitakou S, Moutsatsou P.(PubMed)
(2) Anethole prevents hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis and collagen metabolism alterations in human skin fibroblast by Anna Galicka, Rafał Krętowski, Jolanta Nazaruk, and Marzanna Cechowska-Pasko(PubMed)
(3) Differential Effects Between the Loss of MMP-2 and MMP-9 on Structural and Tissue-Level Properties of Bone by Jeffry S Nyman,1,2,3,4 Conor C Lynch,5 Daniel S Perrien,2,3 Sophie Thiolloy,6 Elizabeth C O’Quinn,2,7 Chetan A Patil,4 Xiaohong Bi,2,4 George M Pharr,8,9 Anita Mahadevan-Jansen,4 andGregory R Mundy(PMC)
(4) Osteoporosis, a unitary hypothesis of collagen loss in skin and bone by Shuster S1.(PubMed)

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