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Tuesday, 3 March 2015

Most common diseases of Elders- Diseases of Central Nervous system(CNS): TCM Herbal treatments of Dementia Caused by Toxins accumulation and kidney essence depletion

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By Kyle J. Norton Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.


                      Diseases of Central Nervous system


                           Dementia


About 5-8% of all people over the age of 65 have some form of dementia, and this number doubles every five years above that age. Dementia is the loss of mental ability, severe enough to interfere with people's every life and Alzheimer's disease is the most common type of dementia in aging people.
V. Treatments
C. In traditional Chinese Medicine Perspective(*)

Based on Chinese ancient medical records. causes of dementia are the results of (*)

C.5.  According to TCM philosophy, dementia is also to be induced by the combination/or of Kidney essence vacuity and toxin (turbid phlegm).
 C.5.1. Dementia due to toxins accumulation
Toxins accumulation in  internal organs disturbed the balance of immunity(1213)(1214) may cause  impairment of food intake regulation(1215), exhibition of phlegm(1208)(1208)(1210), retention of fluid(1211)(1212) and blood statsis(1209) induced early the onset of dementia, in aging population with depletion of kidney-essence(1208)(1209), according to traditional Chinese medicine.

Herbal Medicine for toxins elimination
Chinese Herbal medicine for toxins elimination 
1.  Shui Fei Zi or Milk thistle (Silybum marianum)
Shui fei zi, the bitter and cold is also known as milk thistle, native to Western Europe and northern Africa, used in traditional Chinese medicine to improve liver function(1193)(1194)(1210), promote the flow of breast milk(1207), bile secretion(1200), anti depression(1201) and anti tumors(1196)(1197)(1198), inhibit allergic effects(1195)(1199), treat hepatitis C(1202)(1203), cirrhosis(1205) and liver fibrosis(1206), by enhancing function of liver and gallbladder channels(1204)

Phytochemicals
 1. Flavonoid 
2. fumaric acid
3. Silymarin
 4. isosilybin, 
5. dehydrosilybin, 
6. silydianin and
7. silychristin. It also contains 
8. cinnamic acid, 
9. myristic acid, 
10. palmitelaidic acid, 
10. arachidic acid.  , 
11. palmitelaidic acid, 
13. Etc.  

Shui Fei Zi or Milk thistle used in the treatment and prevention of dementia(1218) in traditional Chinese medicine, may be due to its effectiveness of phytochemicals Silymarin and Silibinin in ameliorated amyloid pathology(1216) and oxidative stress(1216)(1217) through attenuated levels of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde) and antioxidant (glutathione) in the hippocampus(1217).

1.1. In Alzheimer's disease
Alzheimer disease (AD). a neurodegenerative disorders is the most prevalent diseases  in the United States, in aging population(1219). Silymarin, a phytochemical found abundantly in milk thistle, in age related disorders like neurodegenerative diseases improved  locomotion rate, higher response to stimuli and tolerance to stress, in C.elegans Alzheimer's Model, through delayed paralysis via enhanced resistance to oxidative stress(1220). In rat induced Alzheimer's disease model, the phytochemical also inhibited amyloid formation(1222) and suppressed amyloid protein precursor (APP) expression(1222)and reduced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells(1222) in improvement memory(1223) and learning function(1221).

1.2. In Parkinson disease
In a mouse model of Parkinson's disease, causes od mitochondrial dysfunction and the selective cell death of dopaminergic neurons, silibinin, derivative of silymarin, protected mitochondria through attenuated motor deficit and dopaminergic neuronal loss(1224) and anti oxidative and anti inflammatory pathways(1225).


1.3. In neuroprotective effects  
In focal cerebral ischemia, silymarin (SM), a mixture of flavonolignans extracted from the milk thistle exerted it neuroprotective effects, in upregulating the antioxidant status and lowering the apoptotic response in slowing down the progression of neurodegeneration(1226) and preventing inflammation-related neurodegenerative disease(1227)  and ROS causing oxidative damage to macromolecules in the brain(1230).


1.4. In cognitive impairment
In cognitive deficit mice model, silibinin exhibited its anti cognitive impairment effects through amelioration of decreases in dopamine and serotonin levels in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, (1228). In amyloid beta peptide-induced memory impairment, the chemicals also improve cognitive memory deficits through attenuated the Abeta(25-35)- accumulation of malondialdehyde and depletion of glutathione in the hippocampus(1229).

 
Reprinted from Norton Journal, Volume I, Most Common Diseases of Ages of 50 Plus - Chapter of Diseases of Central Nervous system(CNS): Dementia - Treatments in Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine by Kyle J. Norton  

References
(1193) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9468229
(1194) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20564545
(1195) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23121838
(1196) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23879966
(1197) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24574320
(1198) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25242120
(1199) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23701595
(1200) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17692492
(1201) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25431050
(1202) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25247194
(1203) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22797645
(1204)  http://alternativehealing.org/shui_fei_ji.htm
(1205) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15277093
(1206) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22087179
(1207) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23468043 
(1208) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24187864 
(1209) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22500712
(1210) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24155069 
(1211) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25155658 
(1212) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25162367 
(1213) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24719080 
(1214) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22866982 
(1215) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16769094 
(1216) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21185897 
(1217) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19552690 
(1218) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21071836 
(1219) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25696782
(1220) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25613505
(1221) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24460990
(1222) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21071836
(1223) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19638571
(1224) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25677261
(1225) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24660866
(1226) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21840019
(1227) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20833521
(1228) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19857526
(1229) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19552690
(1230) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19647779


2. Xiu Hui Xiang (Fennel)
Xiu Hui Xiang, the acrid and warm herb, is also known as fennel, native to Mediterranean, used in traditional Chinese medicine  as anti microbal(1232)(1233), antioxidant(1234)(1235) and emmenagogue(1236) and estrogenic(1244) and androgenic(1245) agents and to prevent bone loss in postmenopausal osteoporosis(1237)(1238), treat hepatic fibrosis(1239), gastro intestine disorder(1240)(1241), decrease hair thickness(1243) and increase flow of breast milk(1242) by enhancing function of liver, kidney, spleen, stomach channels(1231).

Phytoshemicals 1. Linoleic acid         
2. Palmitic acid  
3. Arachidic acid  
4. Behenic acid      
5. Quercetin  
6. Phytosteryl b-fructofuranoside  
7. 7-hydroxycoumarin 
8. 6,7-dihydroxycoumarin  
9. Oleanolic acid     
10. Sitosterol  
11. Fenchone 
12. α-pinene  
13. Limonene  
14. β-Pinene  
15. β-Myrcene  
16. α-Phellandrene  
17. P-Cymol  
18. Etc. 


Xiu Hui Xiang (Fennel) used in the treatment of symptoms of neurodegenerative disorder, including age-related mental problems of Alzheimer's disease(1246)) in traditional Chinese medicine, may be due to its effectiveness of phytochemicals in acetylcholinesterase inhibition(1246) and anti inflammation(1247) through suppression of the nuclear factor-kappaB activation pathway(1247) involved stress, cell signaling, free radicals, oxidized LDL,activities(1248)(1249)(1250)(1251).

1. In anxiolytic activity
Anxiety is a condition of neurodisorder of unpleasant state of inner turmoil with fear of the presence and future, according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental DisordersAmerican Psychiatric Association, effecting patients with dementia, including familial Alzheimer's disease(1252) and other neuropsychiatric disorders(1254). Fennel, a medical herb used in many cultures, have shown effectively in treating anxiety, epidemiologically. In adult Swiss albino male mice, oral administration 100 and 200 mg/kg doses of fennel essential oil significantly increased percent number of entries and time spent in open arms in elevated plus maze (EPM) test(1255).


2. In learning and memory
Fennels, the most widely used herbal plant in the world(1256) used in traditional Iranian medicine and modern phytotherapy for memory enhancing(1257).  In Alzheimer's disease, induced a decline of cognitive abilities in mice model, fennel extract successfully ameliorated the amnesic effect of scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg) and aging- induced memory deficits in 8 days in dose-depend maner, through increased step-down latency and acetylcholinesterase inhibition(1258)

References
 (1231) http://alternativehealing.org/xiao_hui_xiang.htm
(1232) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25384804
(1233) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21462837
(1234) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21812646
(1235) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25143939
(1236) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=fennel+emmenagogue
(1237) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22447109
(1238) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25050267
(1239) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22475144
(1240) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22433535
(1241) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20433751
(1242) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6999244
(1243) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24490010
(1244) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6999244
(1245) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/13678227
(1246) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=fennel+dementia
(1247) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15659827
(1248) http://www.nature.com/onc/journal/v25/n51/full/1209954a.html
(1249) http://link.springer.com/article/10.1385%2FCT%3A6%3A2%3A111
(1250) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10602459
(1251) http://www.nature.com/nrm/journal/v8/n1/full/nrm2083.html
(1252) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25688083
(1253) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25687925
(1254) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25653291
(1255) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=fennel+and+anxiety
(1256) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25162032
(1257) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23275017 

3. Da Suan(Garlic)
Da suan, the acrid, warm herb, is also known as garlic, native all over the world, used in traditional Chinese medicine as antibiotic(1259)(1260), anti aging(1261)(1262), anti cancers(1263)(1264)(1265), anti diabetic(1266)(1267), anti arterio-sclerosis anti platelet coagulation(1268)(1269) agents and treat to cardiovascular diseases(1270)(1271)(1272), lower blood pressure(1273)(1274),  blood lipids(1275)(1276)(1277) and promote immunity(1278)(1279)(1280) and capillary circulation(1281)(1282) by enhancing functions of large intestine, lung, spleen, stomach. channels(1258).

Phytochemicals
1.  Allyl methyl sulfide
2. Diallyl sulfide
3. 6-methyl-1-thio-2
4. 4-cyclohexadiene
5. Dimethyl sulfide
6. Divinyl sulfide
7. Dimethyl disulfide
8. Allyl methyl disulfide
9. Dithiocyclopentene
10. 5-methyl-1, 2-dithio-3-cyclopentene
 11.Allyl propyl disulfide
12. 4-methyl-1
13. 2-dithio-3-cyclopentene
14. Allyl propyl trisulfide 
15. Diallyl tetrasulfide
16. Dipropyl disulfide
17. Methyl propyl trisulfide
18. Allyl methyl tetrasulfide
19. Allyl methyl pentasulfide 
20. Etc. 


Da Suan(Garlic) used in the treatment of symptoms of dementia(1283)(1284)(1285), including Alzheimer's pathophysiology(1288)(1289) in traditional Chinese medicine, may be due to its effectiveness of phytochemicals aged garlic extract and S-allyl-L-cysteine and extracts(1284) in oxidative stress inhibition(1284) and anti progression involved association of degeneration and neuro inflammatory activity(1286) through neuro protection against amyloid-beta peptide-induced apoptosis(1285) and toxicity(1287).

1.1. In Alzheimer's disease
Strong evidences suggested that deposited amyloid-beta(Abeta) has shown to associated to the progression in Alzheimer's disease (AD)(1290)(1291)(1292), In  mouse model induced by neurotoxic amyloid beta protein (Aβ), ethyl acetate fractions of garlic extract exhibited high levels of radical scavenging activity involved cognitive impairment against Aβ-induced neuronal deficit and  Aβ-induced learning and memory deficits in vivo(1293). According to Indiana University School of Medicine, the extracts also attenuated synaptic degeneration and neuroinflammatory pathways associated with AD, through major phytochemical S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC) (1294), including oxidative insults to neurons(1295). In Alzheimer's transgenic model Tg2576, dietary aged garlic extract (AGE) (2%) showed to exhibited anti-amyloidogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-tangle effects also through its phytochemicals S-allyl-cysteine (SAC) (20 mg/kg) and di-allyl-disulfide (DADS)(1296) without without interfering with its antibiotic activity in ameliorate gentamicin (GM)effectiveness(1297).

1.2. In Parkinson disease
 Olfactory dysfunction(1298)(1299) in non-motor functioning and hyposmia(1300)(1301)/anosmia(1302)(1303) are common manifestation in some neurodegenerative disorders caused by oxidative stress (OS) and inflammatory insults(1305), including Parkinson disease. Dietary supplement S-methyl-L-cysteine,  a substrate in the catalytic antioxidant system mediated by MSRA showed to protect cells from oxidative damage through its antioxidative effect(1304) when used conjunction with methionine sulfoxide reductase A in Parkinson's-like symptoms(1304).

1.3. In Cognitive impairment
In early cognitive deficits caused by gradually of accumulation of beta-amyloid peptide (Abeta) oligomers of Abeta42 species, aged garlic extract, in mice model, prevented progressive behavioral impairment, slowed  plaque development, through protection against deterioration of hippocampal based memory(1306), In Alzheimer's disease induced mice model, S-allyl cysteine, a component of aged garlic extract, ameliorated cognitive deficits and oxidative damage in the hippocampus of intracerebroventricular streptozotocin (ICV-STZ)(1308). According to Gyeongsang National University, the effectiveness of aged garlic extracts, in neurodegenerative disorders, notably Alzheimer's disease(AD), may be due to its antioxidant activities in improvement of cognitive impairment against Aβ-induced neuronal deficit(1307).

1.4. In learning and memory
Acute and chronic oral administration of aged garlic extract, in mice using step down latency (SDL) by passive avoidance response and transfer latency (TL) using elevated plus maze, improved learning and memory probably due to cortical acetylcholinesterase (AchE) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels activities and anti-oxidant property(1309). In oxidative damage and spatial learning and memory deficits induced mice model, S-allylcysteine exerted its protective effect against reactive oxygen species. Abeta(25-35)-induced hippocampal toxicity and learning deficits, through its free radical  scavenging and ameliorated lipid peroxidation activities(1310).

References
 (1258) http://alternativehealing.org/garlic.htm
(1259) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10594976
(1260) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11759674
(1261) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24066081
(1262) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9131291
(1263) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25078449
(1264) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24859825
(1265) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24309133
(1266) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23543654
(1267) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23923607
(1268) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17918162
(1269) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10192909
(1270) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25141365
(1271) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16484559
(1272) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24067391
(1273) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24172194
(1274) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24199984
(1285) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25671065
(1276) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25575520
(1277) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23194526
(1278) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24564587
(1279) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24122196
(1280) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22717023 
(1281) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24989289
(1282) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16868359
(1283) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21376020
(1284) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21166677
(1285) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12165737
(1286) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21728972
(1287) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21499478
(1288) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18844255
(1289) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16842945
(1290) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24519982
(1291) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20061605
(1292) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23713775
(1293) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24134394
(1294) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21728972
(1295) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21166677
(1296) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16842945
(1297) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15934032
(1298) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25640661
(1299) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24262869
(1300) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25546094
(1301) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25506732
(1302) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20083801
(1303) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20603494
(1304) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18032652
(1305) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11295356
(1306) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17380553
(1307) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24134394
(1308) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21376020
(1309) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24579375
(1310) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15087243

V. Treatments
C. In traditional Chinese Medicine Perspective(*)

Based on Chinese ancient medical records. causes of dementia are the results of (*)
C.5.  According to TCM philosophy, dementia is also to be induced by the combination/or of Kidney essence vacuity and toxin (turbid phlegm).
C.5.2. Dementia due to aging depletion of Kidney Essence
Aging related to gradual lost of kidney essence effects the bone and bone marrow in production of red blood cells causes of nutrient and oxygen deficiency in the brain in induction of symptoms of dementia(1311)(1312).
1. Dong Chong Cao(Cordyceps)
Dong Chong Cao, the sweet and warm herb, is also known as cordyceps, used in traditional Chinese medicine as anti-arrhythmia, anti-rejection in cornea transplant, antimicrobal effects and to attenuate contraction of smooth muscles, protect against toxins induced kedney and liver diseases, treat chronic lower back pain, impotence, chronic cough and wheezing, blood in phlegm,... as its tonifies lung yin and kidney yang by enhancing the functions of lung and kidney channels(1313).

Phtochemicals
1. Cordyceps polysaccharide
2. Ergosterol
3. Cordycepic acid
4.  Lysine
5. Aspartic acid
6. Threonine
7. Taurine
8. Etc.

In  in vitro and in vivo model of Alzheimer's disease, methanol extracts of dong chon cao, prevented the beta-amyloid((25-35) induced neuro cell death(1314) and in rat model of ADs, its phytochemical ophioglossoides significantly prevented spatial memory loss by intracranial injection of Abeta(1314), probably through its free radical scavenging activity(1314).

References
(1313) http://alternativehealing.org/dong_chong_xia_cao.htm
(1314) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Cordyceps+and+dementia

2.  Shi Hu(Dendrobium)
the sweet, bland, slightly cold herb, is also known as Dendrobiu, used in traditional Chinese medicine as  anti diabetic(1315)(1316)) and anti-hyperglycemic((1317)(1318))and anti microbial(1319)(1320) agents caused by yin deficiency and to treat thirsty(1315)(1316), thromboangitis obliterans, chronic throat infection, blurry vision(1321)(1322), weak lower back,... by enhancing the lung, stomach channels(1323).

Phytochemicals
1. Ophiopogonin 
2. Ruscogenin 
3. β-sitosterol β
4. Stigmasterol 
5. Dendrobine 
6. Nobilonine 
7. 6-hydroxydendrobine 
8. Etc.

According to Zunyi Medical College,  alkaloids enriched extract from Dendrobium Nobile Lindl. (EDNLA), showed to inhibit paired helical filaments of  hyperphosphorylation of tau protein,  in neurofibrillary tangles, a pathological feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD)(1324). In rat model administrated intragastrically with different doses of DNLA (20, 40 mg/kg), attenuated lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 100 μg) injecting into the bilateral ventricle, induced hyperphosphorylation of tau protein in rat's hippocampus and protect against LPS-induced apoptosis in rat brain(1325).

References
(1315) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25685822
(1316) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24846859
(1317) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15719686
(1318) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18831216
(1319) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22715718
(1320) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21181405
(1321) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23847958
(1322) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19852302
(1323) http://alternativehealing.org/shi_hu.htm
(1324) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Dendrobium+and+Alzheimer's+disease


3. Du Zhong(Eucommia bark)
Du Zhong, the sweet, slightly acrid, and warm, is also known as eucommia bark, used in traditional Chinese medicine as anti stress(1325)(1326), anti diuretic(1336), anti inflammatory(1327)(1328), anti infectious(1329), sedative and anesthesia and anti-aging(1336) agents and to treat hypertension(1330)(1331), chronic pain in lower back and knees(1332)(1336), lack of strength, dizziness, impotence(1337), irregular menses and frequent urination(1336) and protect against unstable pregnancy(1336),.... by enhancing the functions of liver and kidney channels(1333).


Phytochemicals
1. Eucommiol 
2. Eucommioside 
3. Eucommioside-I
4. Cpmoferom
5. Dehydrodiconife4ryl alcohol-4
6. Gamma'-di-O0betta-D-glucopyranoside
7. Liriodendrin
8. (+) -syringaresinol-di-O-Beta-D-glucopyranoside
9. (+)-syringa resinol  O-Beta-D-glucopyranoside
10. (+)-syringaresinol monoglucoside
11. syringin
12. Etc.

1. In learning and memory
In scopolamine-induced learning and memory impairments, and a single intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of Aβ(25-35) mice models, oral administration of aqueous extract of Eucommia bark or the whole  herb significantly reversed learning and memory deficits, through  inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE)(1335) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) activities in the hippocampus and frontal cortex in a dose-dependent manner(1334)(1335).

2. In Alzheimer's disease (AD)
In hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-induced neuronal cell death in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, eucommia ulmoides Oliv. Bark. (EUE), increased cell viability and inhibited cytotoxicity and DNA condensation, through attenuated the increase in ROS production and MMP involved increased risk of dementia reduction(1337).

3. In neuroprotective effects
In PC-12 cells injury mediated by Aβ(25-35) eucommia ulmoides Oliv. (EUO) bark and leaf's phytochemicals, geniposidic acid and chlorogenic acid, significantly protect PC-12 cells against the cytotoxicity(1338). In amyloid beta(25-35) (Aβ(25-35))-induced learning and memory impairments mice
model, the herb laso exhibited neuroprotective effects through inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the hippocampus and frontal cortex(1235).


References
(1325) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24440915
(1326) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11749801
(1327) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19735174
(1328) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25575468
(1329) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Eucommia+bark+anti+infection
(1330) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22214253
(1331) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20347950
(1332) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Eucommia+bark++pain
(1333) (1317) http://alternativehealing.org/du_zhong.htm
(1334) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24404337
(1335) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20974223
(1336) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22735663
(1337) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24296089
(1338) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21784025

4. Huang qi(Astragalus)
Huang qi, the slightly sweet herb, is also known as astragalus root used in traditional Chinese medicine as immune stimulant(1339)(1342)(1343), tonic(1339)(1344), antioxidant(1339)(1341), hepatoprotectant(1339)(1345)(1346), diuretic(1339), antidiabetic(1339)(1347)(1348), anticancer(1339)(1349)(1350)(1351), expectoran(1339)(1352) and antibiotics(1340) agents and to lessen proteinuria in chronic kidney diseases(1353)(1354), lower blood pressure(1355)(1356) and endothelial dysfunction(1356),  improve endurance and protect liver against diseases(1357)(1358),... by enhancing the functions of lung and spleen channels(1359).

Phytochemicals 
1. Astralagus menbranaceus
2. Astragaloside I
3. Astragaloside II
4. Daucosterol
5. Beta-sitosterol
6. Palmitic acid
7. Astragalus saponin A,B,C
8. Astramenbrangenin
9. Etc.

Huang qi(Astragalus root) used in the treatment of symptoms of dementia(1360)(1261))(1362)(1362), including Alzheimer's pathophysiology(1363) in traditional Chinese medicine, may be due to its effectiveness of phytochemical astragalosides (AST) and  extracts(1365)(1363) in oxidative stress inhibition(1363) and anti progression involved association of neuronal cell apoptosis(1363) through inhibiting acetylcholinesterase activity(1364), level glucocorticoids (GCs) and β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide deposition(1367) and decreasing the expression level of amyloid precursor protein (APP) in cerebral cortex and hippocampus(1365)(1366), ROS generation and neurotoxicity(1368)(1369). 

1. In learning and memory
Polysaccharides (APS), isolated from  Astragalus, in aging female SD rats model, according to  the open-field test and the Morris water maze task, improved  learning and memory functions of aged rats through up-regulation in the hippocampus neural plasticity protein expression(1370). In rats induced neurologic damage of hippocampus by electromagnetic field (EMF) acute or chronic irradiation, Chinese medicine diet (CMD) comprised ferulic acid, ginsenoside, astragalus polysaccharide and rhodiola sachalinensis, showed to protect the impaired learning and memory, the neuron apoptosis, through ameliorating superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and reactive oxygen species (ROS)(1371). In intermittent hypoxia-induced hippocampal neurons impairment rats, astragaloside IV, astragaloside II and astragaloside I, the main compounds in astragals extract inhibited the apoptosis of hippocampal neurons, decreased the expression of protein level involved imapir learning and memory(1372). According to Anhui Medical University, learning and memory impairments and neurons' apoptosis induced by glucocorticoids in 12-month-old male mice model, extract of Astragalus, improved learning and memory impairments and prevented  neuronal cell apoptosis, through increased immunohistochemistry demonstrate in hippocampus and neocortex and decreased activity of mitochondrial death pathway after nuron cell death(1373).

2. In Alzheimer's and Parkinson disease 
Mitochondrial dysfunction caused by amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) and stress-level glucocorticoids correlated with dementia progression have shown to associated to  the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease(1374)(1375), Astragaloside IV (AS-IV), one of the major active constituents of Astragalus and extract of Astragalus, prevented Aβ1-42-induced neuron cell apoptosis, and ROS generation(1374) and down regulate the protein level builds up as Alzheimer's disease progresses, involved degeneration of hippocampus (CA1, CA3) and neocortex(1375).
According to Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine, Astragalus, one of the herb used in traditional Chinese medicine for treatment neuro degenerative diseases showed to modulate multiple key events or signaling pathways implicated in the pathogenesis of PD(1376), probably through its phytochemical Astragaloside IV in promoted neurite outgrowth and increased  immunoreactive of dopaminergic neurons caused by ROS(1377).

3. In neuroprotective effects 
In experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage induced early brain injury rat model, Astragaloside IV, a major chemical component isolated from Astragalus, exerted its antioxidative and anti-apoptotic effects(1378)(1379), against increased malondialdehyde (MDA) level, neuronal apoptosis and decreased activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)(1378).Myelophil, a combination of extracts isplated from Astragali Radix and Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix, in brain dysfunctions animal model, also exhibited its anti oxidative stress, ROS activity through attenuated total glutathione (GSH) content, and the activities of GSH-reductase, GSH-S-transferase via ameliorated protein and gene expression(1380) and inflammation and regulating stress hormones(1381).



References
(1311) https://books.google.ca/books?id=oea9BQAAQBAJ&pg=PA70&lpg=PA70&dq=Kidney+Essence+and+aging+dementia&source=bl&ots=tOfAsR-Vrk&sig=hvLIdsWGFNBy2hDoeuB5YvIPQlU&hl=en&sa=X&ei=QcjsVKSiKoeeyASu4oHACg&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=Kidney%20Essence%20and%20aging%20dementia&f=false
(1312) https://books.google.ca/books?id=bL4X1HiasqEC&pg=PA292&lpg=PA292&dq=Kidney+Essence+and+dementia+symptoms&source=bl&ots=zWx7MfG8r2&sig=5RFsTGmdj_6T3gJNWe0iHD5ww0Y&hl=en&sa=X&ei=tsnsVK6UMoekyASFhoDoBg&ved=0CFgQ6AEwBw#v=onepage&q=Kidney%20Essence%20and%20dementia%20symptoms&f=false
(1339) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25087616
(1340) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24710996
(1341) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24456824
(1342) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25669325
(1343) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21856398
(1344) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25690295
(1345) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25435153
(1346) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25415237
(1347) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23049681
(1348) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24863354
(1349) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25319833
(1350) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22992293
(1351) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24026428
(1352) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25690295
(1353) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25137839
(1354) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25335553
(1355) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22350214
(1356) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21555978
(1357) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25551689
(1358) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24933224
(1359) http://alternativehealing.org/huang_qi.htm
(1360) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12971399
(1361) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15346617
(1362) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7893391
(1363) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21538932
(1364) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8155947
(1365) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20506830
(1366) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24956824
(1367) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22484447
(1368) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24905226
(1369) http://www.medsci.org/v11p1073.htm
(1370) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25272845 
(1371) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24175560 
(1372) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23595393 
(1373) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21538932 
(1374) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24905226
(1375) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21538932
(1376) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23266574
(1377) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19409437
(1378) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25136262
(1379) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24724856
(1380) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24690775
(1381) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23665312