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Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.
What is Candida Albicans
Candida albicans are members of a large group of micro organism whose cells contain complex structures enclosed within the membranes, including yeast(2)(3), fungi(4)(5)(6), and mold(6) that live among the gut flora in the human mouth and gastrointestinal tract. In fact, under normal circumstances, Candida albicans that do not cause harmful effects, but overgrowth result in candidiasis. Non-albicans Candida (NAC) species cause 35-65% of all candidaemias in the general patient population(1). According to joint study, in many cases, biofilm(microorganisms with cells stick to each other on a surface) formation(7) gene mutations(8) and overexpression of genes(9)(10) are often associated with increased Candida resistance toward antifungal agents.
In Traditional Chinese Medicine
In traditional Chinese medicine, candidiasis is defined as a malfunction of the Triple Burner-related condition due to spleen and stomach disorder(401), causing excess fluid or phlegm in our system(402), weakening immune system(403)(402), leading to damp heat accumulates in the Lower, Middle and Upper Burner causes of candidiasis(401).
Cleansing TCM Herbs
Overgrowth of candida in TCM is considered as the accumulation of waste, phlegm and damp heat, toxins due to inability of spleen and stomach in digesting foods properly(401).
Chinese Herbs for Lower and Middle burner causes of Candida Albicans Overgrowth
1. Long Dan Cao (Gentianae Radix)
Long can cao is also known as Gentian is a genus of flowering plants (Gentiana L), belonging to the family Gentianaceae. The bitter, cold and non toxic herb has been used in TCM as analgesic(407) and to treat inflammation(404)(406), stimulate the digestive system(407)(408), in regulation of production of bile(409)(411), hydrochloride acid(411)(413) and other digestive enzymes secretion from panceas(414) by clearing liver and gallbladder damp heat(419) as it enhances the functions of liver, gallbladder and stomach channels(410)(412). According to study, the herb contains 5 active iridoids (loganic acid, 6'-O-beta-D-glucopyranosylgentiopicroside, swertiamarin, gentiopicroside, sweroside)(405), responsible for some of pharmaceutical activities, including cardiovascular, antihepatotoxic, choleretic, hypoglycemic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory,..... activities(406).
According to The University of Hong Kong, Long gan cao showed effectively in inhibition of Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis, through its anti microbial activities(418)
2. Huang Qin (Skullcap)
Huang qin is also known as skullcap, a genus of Scutellaria, belonging to the family Lamiaceae. The bitter and cold herb has been used in TCM as antihistamine(415), anti edema(415) and anti-toxin(415) agents and to promote bowel movements(416), treat hepatitis B(417) by clearing heat(419), drying fire, draining dampness(419) as it promotes the functions of gallbladder, large intestine, lung, stomach channels. According to Integrating Complementary Medicine into Veterinary Practice By Paula Jo Broadfoot, Richard E. Palmquist, Karen Johnston, Jiu Jia Wen, Barbara Fougere, skullcap exhibited anti inflammatory, anti allergic, anti microorganisms effects(419), probably through its antioxidant and stimulating immune activities(420).
3. Zhi Zi (Gardenia)
Zhi zi is also known as gardenia fruit, a genus of Gardenia, belonging to the family Rubiaceae, native to the tropical and subtropical regions of Africa, southern Asia, Australasia and Oceania. The bitter, cold and toxic herb has been used in TCM as anti toxic and antimalarial(421) antibiotic, antibacterial (424) antithrombotic(423), including resistant bacteria carrying blaNDM-1 and Candida albicans(426) and anti-inflammatory(421) effects and to treat digestive disorder(425) by dispersing fire, clearing heat, draining dampness, expelling toxins as it enhances the functions of heart, liver, lung, stomach, triple warmer channels.
4. Mu Tong (Akebia caulis)
Mu Tong is also known as Akebia caulis, a genus of akebia, belonging to the family Lardizabalaceae. The bitter and cool herb has been used in TCM as antibiotic, (Including inhibition of a variety of pathogenic fungi, including candida albicans(428)) anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory(429), a diuretic(430) and a pain reliever agent(427)(429) and to calm pain on urination(428)(429) and clearing heat as it promotes the functions of bladder, heart, small intestine channels(428).
5. Che Qian Cao (Plaintain)
Che qian cao is also known as Plaintain, the common name for herbaceous plants of the genus Musa, native to Southeast Asia and Oceania. The sweet and cold herb has been used in TCM as antimicrobials agent(431)(432) and to promote intestinal health, by blocking adhesion of intestinal pathogens(433), probably through its antioxidant(436) and Immunomodulatory(437) effects, treat damp heat in the lower burner channel(439) due to infection(431)(434)and sexual dysfunction(435), stop diarrhea(438) by clearing the liver and lungs and transforming phlegm as it promotes the functions of bladder, kidney, liver, lung channels(439).
6. Ze Xie (Alismatis Rhizoma)
Ze xie is also known as Alisma, a genus of flowering plants in the family Alismataceae, found in a variety of still water habitats all over the world. The sweet and cold herb has been used in TCM as antioxidant(450) agent and to treat painful and difficult urination, edema, atopic dermatitis(445), nephropathy, hypoglycemica(446), diabetes(449), inflammation(441)(444), diarrhea(442), leukorrhagia(443), caused by damp heat in the lower burner(440), by eliminating water(441), clearing heat and damp heat as its enhances the functions of kidney and bladder channels(440).
According to Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, herbal formula Jianpi Huoxue Decoction, containing ze xie, effectively improved intestinal permeability by allowing nutrients to pass through the gut, while blocking potentially toxins from entering(448).
7. Chai Hu (Radix Bupleuri)
Chai hu is also known as Buplerum, a genus Buplerum of plants of the Apiaceae family. The bitter and cold herd has been used in TCM as anthelmintic(453)(456), anti proliferative(456), antimicrobial(459) and anti stress(455) agent and to treat fever, cold, hepatitis(451), diabetes(452), irregular menses(59), prolapse of uterus(459), and prolapse of rectum(459) by clearing heat and resolving depression(457) and liver stagnation(458) as it promotes the functions of the liver, gallbladder, pericardium, triple burner channels.
According to studies, the herb also process a very strong antioxidant contents through its total phenolic compounds including B. falcatum, B. falcatum 'Mishima' and B. latissimum, via radical scavenging activity(454).
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(1) Non-albicans Candida spp. causing fungaemia: pathogenicity and antifungal resistance by Krcmery V1, Barnes AJ.(PubMed)
(2) Pathogenicity and drug resistance in Candida albicans and other yeast species. A review by Mishra NN1, Prasad T, Sharma N, Payasi A, Prasad R, Gupta DK, Singh R.(PubMed)
(3) Multidrug resistance in yeast Candida by Prasad R1, Kapoor K.(PubMerd)
(4) New evidence that Candida albicans possesses additional ATP-binding cassette MDR-like genes: implications for antifungal azole resistance. by Walsh TJ1, Kasai M, Francesconi A, Landsman D, Chanock SJ.(PubMed)
(5) Mechanisms of resistance to azole antifungal agents in Candida albicans isolates from AIDS patients involve specific multidrug transporters.by Sanglard D1, Kuchler K, Ischer F, Pagani JL, Monod M, Bille J.(PubMed)
(6) Structural analysis of phospho-D-mannan-protein complexes isolated from yeast and mold form cells of Candida albicans NIH A-207 serotype A strain by Shibata N1, Fukasawa S, Kobayashi H, Tojo M, Yonezu T, Ambo A, Ohkubo Y, Suzuki S.(PubMed)
(7) The effect of antifungal combination on transcripts of a subset of drug-resistance genes in clinical isolates of Candida species induced biofilms by Ibrahim NH1, Melake NA2, Somily AM3, Zakaria AS4, Baddour MM5, Mahmoud AZ6(PubMed)
(8) Antifungal drug resistance in pathogenic fungi. by Vanden Bossche H1, Dromer F, Improvisi I, Lozano-Chiu M, Rex JH, Sanglard D.(PubMed)
(9) The genetic basis of fluconazole resistance development in Candida albicans by Morschhäuser J1.(PubMed)
(10) A proteomic approach to understanding the development of multidrug-resistant Candida albicans strains by Kusch H1, Biswas K, Schwanfelder S, Engelmann S, Rogers PD, Hecker M, Morschhäuser J.(PubMed)
(401) Traditional Chinese Medicine for Candidiasis(Traditional Chinese medicine information page)
(402) Spleen(Earth)(5 organs network of Chinese medicine)
(403) Digestive Disorders Health Center(WebMD)
(404) The anti-inflammatory secoiridoid glycosides from Gentianae Scabrae Radix: the root and rhizome of Gentiana scabra by He YM1, Zhu S, Ge YW, Kazuma K, Zou K, Cai SQ, Komatsu K.(PubMed)
(405) [Simultaneous determination of five iridoids in gentianae macrophyllae radix and their local variety by HPLC].[Article in Chinese] by Wu JR, Wu LH, Zhao ZL, Wang ZT.(PubMed)
(407) Comparison of the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of Gentiana macrophylla Pall. and Gentiana straminea Maxim., and identification of their active constituents by Jia N1, Li Y, Wu Y, Xi M, Hur G, Zhang X, Cui J, Sun W, Wen A.(PubMed)
(408) Isolation of gentiopicroside from Gentianae Radix and its pharmacokinetics on liver ischemia/reperfusion rats by Chang-Liao WL1, Chien CF, Lin LC, Tsai TH.(PubMed)
(409) [Effect of a plant extract combination preparation on gastrointestinal transit time and bile acid excretion].[Article in German] by Matzkies F, Webs B.(PubMed)
(410) Liver diseases in traditional Chinese medicine by Dr. Mary Wu and Dr. Cindy Cheng(Toronto School of Traditional Chinese Medicine)
(411) Active constituents of Gentian.Radix Gentianae.Gentian root(MDidea)
(412) long dan cao(Complementary and Alternative Healing University)
(413) Influence of d-galactosamine hydrochloride on lipids and their fatty acid composition in plasma and liver of guinea pigs by Gallenkamp H, Bartsch GG, Löhr JP, Brachtel D, Richter E.(PubMed)
(414) The endocrine secretion of mammalian digestive enzymes by exocrine glands by Isenman L1, Liebow C, Rothman S.(PubMed)
(415) Huang Qin (Complementary and Alternative Healing University)
(416) Felter, H.W. The Eclectic Materia Medica, Pharmacology and Therapeutics. Cincinnati, Ohio: John K. Scudder, 1922, p. 625.
(417) Skullcap(University of Maryland medical center)
(418) Antimicrobial activity of Chinese medicine herbs against common bacteria in oral biofilm. A pilot study by Wong RW1, Hägg U, Samaranayake L, Yuen MK, Seneviratne CJ, Kao R.(PubMed)
(418) Screening 20 Chinese herbs often used for clearing heat and dissipating toxin with nude mice model of hepatitis C viral infection]. [Article in Chinese] by Tang ZM1, Peng M, Zhan CJ.(PubMed)
(419) Integrating Complementary Medicine into Veterinary Practice By Paula Jo Broadfoot, Richard E. Palmquist, Karen Johnston, Jiu Jia Wen, Barbara Fougere, Page 684
(420) Botanical Medicine in Clinical Practice - Page 430
(422) Antiplasmodial and anti-inflammatory activities of Canthium henriquesianum (K. Schum), a plant used in traditional medicine in Burkina Faso by Ilboudo DP1, Basilico N, Parapini S, Corbett Y, D'Alessandro S, Dell'Agli M, Coghi P, Karou SD, Sawadogo R, Gnoula C, Simpore J, Nikiema JB, Monti D, Bosisio E, Taramelli D.(PubMed)
(423) Antithrombotic activities of aqueous extract from Gardenia jasminoides and its main constituent by Zhang HY1, Liu H, Yang M, Wei SF.(PubMed)
(424) [Antimicrobial effects of qingkailing injection extract and combination therapy of qingkailing injection and antibiotics on bacteria carrying blaNDM-1 resistance gene]. [Article in Chinese] by Shang W1, Wang XS, Zou DY, Zhang ZN, Liao XR, Yuan J.(PubMed)
(425) Healing Digestive Disorders: Natural Treatments for Gastrointestinal Conditions By Andrew Gaeddert. Page 76 - 77.
(426) Iridoids from Gardenia jasminoides by Ragasa CY1, Pimenta LE, Rideout JA.(PubMed)
(427) Akebia - Ask Dr. Mao
(428) Mu Tong (Complementary and Alternative Healing University)
(429) Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the saponin and sapogenins obtained from the stem of Akebia quinata by Choi J1, Jung HJ, Lee KT, Park H (PubMed)
(430) 1000 plants and remedies By Aaron Matas
(431) Soluble plantain nonstarch polysaccharides, although increasing caecal load, reduce systemic invasion of Salmonella Gallinarum in the chicken by Parsons BN1, Campbell BJ, Wigley P.(PubMed)
(432) Dietary supplementation with soluble plantain non-starch polysaccharides inhibits intestinal invasion of Salmonella Typhimurium in the chicken by Parsons BN1, Wigley P2, Simpson HL1, Williams J(PubMed)
(433) Soluble plantain fibre blocks adhesion and M-cell translocation of intestinal pathogens by Roberts CL1, Keita AV, Parsons BN, Prorok-Hamon M, Knight P, Winstanley C, O' Kennedy N, Söderholm JD, Rhodes JM, Campbell BJ.(PubMed)
(434) Interactive effects between diet and genotypes of host and pathogen define the severity of infection. Zhang J1, Friman VP, Laakso J, Mappes J.(PubMed)
(435) Traditional herbal remedies used in the management of sexual impotence and erectile dysfunction in western Uganda by Maud Kamatenesi-Mugisha and Hannington Oryem-Origa(PubMed)
(436) Chemical characteristics and antioxidant activities of polysaccharide purified from the seeds of Plantago asiatica L” by Yin JY, Nie SP, Zhou C, Wan Y, Xie MY(PubMed)
(437) [Effects of phenylethanoid glycosides from seeds of Plantago asiatica on maturation of dendritic cells]. [rticle in Chinese]” by Huang D, Nie S, Tang Y, Wan Y, Chen Y, Xie M.(PubMed)
(438) [Oral rehydration with a plantain flour-based solution precooked with standardized electrolytes].
(445) The rhizomes of Alisma orientale and alisol derivatives inhibit allergic response and experimental atopic dermatitis by Lee JH1, Kwon OS, Jin HG, Woo ER, Kim YS, Kim HP.(PubMed)
(447) [Analysis of major herbs in Chinese herbal formula Jianpi Huoxue Decoction for improving intestinal permeability based on uniform design].[Article in Chinese by Fu QL1, Hu YY, Feng Q, Wang XN, Peng JH, Cui T.(PubMed)
(448) [Analysis of major herbs in Chinese herbal formula Jianpi Huoxue Decoction for improving intestinal permeability based on uniform design].[Article in Chinese by Fu QL1, Hu YY, Feng Q, Wang XN, Peng JH, Cui T.(PubMed)
(449) In vitro antidiabetic activities of five medicinal herbs used in Chinese medicinal formulae by Lau CH1, Chan CM, Chan YW, Lau KM, Lau TW, Lam FC, Che CT, Leung PC, Fung KP, Ho YY, Lau CB.(PubMed)
(450) Optimization of ultrasound extraction of Alisma orientalis polysaccharides by response surface methodology and their antioxidant activities by Zhao ZY1, Zhang Q2, Li YF1, Dong LL3, Liu SL4.(PubMed)
(451) Saikosaponin a, an active compound of Radix Bupleuri, attenuates inflammation in hypertrophied 3T3-L1 adipocytes via ERK/NF-κB signaling pathways by Kim SO1, Park JY1, Jeon SY1, Yang CH2, Kim MR1.(PubMed)
(452) Inhibitory activities of selected Kampo formulations on human aldose reductase by Onoda T, Ishikawa C, Fukazawa T, Li W1, Obayashi M, Koike K.(PubMed)
(453) Anthelmintic activity of saikosaponins a and d from radix bupleuri against Dactylogyrus spp. infecting goldfish by Zhu S1, Ling F, Zhang Q, Liu G, Tu X, Jiang C, Wang G.(PubMed)
(454) Antioxidant activity and total phenolic contents of three Bupleurum taxa by Kim H, Kim SH, Yun KW.(PubMed)
(455) Yokukansan, a traditional Japanese herbal medicine, alleviates the emotional abnormality induced by maladaptation to stress in mice by Tsuji M1, Takeuchi T2, Miyagawa K2, Ishii D2, Imai T2, Takeda K2, Kitajima M3, Takeda H4.(PubMed)
(456)Antioxidant and Proliferative Activities of Bupleuri Radix Extract Against Serum Deprivation in SH-SY5Y Cells by Seo MK1, Cho HY, Lee CH, Koo KA, Park YK, Lee JG, Lee BJ, Park SW, Kim YH.(PubMed)
(457) [Observation on clinical efficacy of depression treated with the alliance of acupuncture and medication].[Article in Chinese] by Liu EJ1, Zhang WL, Bai YP.(PubMed)
(458)[Effects of resolving phlegm method on fibrinolytic status in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis patients of phlegm and blood-stasis syndrome].[Article in Chinese] by Chen L1, Jiang YK, Cai YB.(PubMed)
(459) Chai Hu(Complementary and Alternative Healing University)