Friday, 13 March 2015

Holistic approach for Prevention, controlling and Treatment of Candida Albicans Overgrowth- The Effectiveness of Vitamins

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By Kyle J. Norton Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

What is Candida Albicans

Candida albicans is a member of a large group of micro organism whose cells contain complex structures enclosed within the membranes, including yeast(2)(3), fungi(4)(5)(6), and mold(6) that live among the gut flora in the human mouth and gastrointestinal tract. In fact, under normal circumstances, Candida albicans that does not cause harmful effects, but overgrowth results in candidiasis. Non-albicans Candida (NAC) species cause 35-65% of all candidaemias in the general patient population(1). According to joint study, in many cases, biofilm(microorganisms with cells stick to each other on a surface) formation(7) gene mutations(8) and overexpression of genes(9)(10) are often associated with increased Candida resistance toward antifungal agents.

Treatments and controllings
B. Vitamins
1. Vitamin B2
Vitamin B2 required for a wide variety of cellular processes, plays a key role in energy metabolism,  enhances the digestive system in absorbing nutrients and supports the immune system(230)(231) in fighting against bacteria causes of inflammatory disease, including candida(232).

2. Vitamin C
Vitamin C, a water-soluble vitamin and an antioxidant found in high concentrations in immune cells, is not only important in aiding the digestive system in absorbing nutrients, but also enhances the production of white blood cell(233)(234) of the immune system(235) in protection of the body by binding to the harmful bacteria(236) and ingesting them.

3. Vitamin A
Retinoic acid, appears to maintain normal skin health by switching on genes and differentiating keratinocytes (immature skin cells)(237) into mature epidermal cells and helps to detoxify liver(238), and enhances the immune system(239)(240) in protecting our body through its antimicrobial functions, including candida albicans(241).

4. Vitamin E
Vitamin E is fat-soluble compounds included both tocopherols and tocotrienols. It besides is an polyphenol antioxidants(242)(246) in scavenging free radicals, but also promotes the immune system in enhanced functions of B-cells(244)(245), the immune cells(245)(247) in production of antibodies to destroy microorganisms.

5. Etc.

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+ References
(1) Non-albicans Candida spp. causing fungaemia: pathogenicity and antifungal resistance by Krcmery V1, Barnes AJ.(PubMed)
(2) Pathogenicity and drug resistance in Candida albicans and other yeast species. A review by Mishra NN1, Prasad T, Sharma N, Payasi A, Prasad R, Gupta DK, Singh R.(PubMed)
(3)  Multidrug resistance in yeast Candida by Prasad R1, Kapoor K.(PubMerd)
(4) New evidence that Candida albicans possesses additional ATP-binding cassette MDR-like genes: implications for antifungal azole resistance. by Walsh TJ1, Kasai M, Francesconi A, Landsman D, Chanock SJ.(PubMed)
(5) Mechanisms of resistance to azole antifungal agents in Candida albicans isolates from AIDS patients involve specific multidrug Sanglard D1, Kuchler K, Ischer F, Pagani JL, Monod M, Bille J.(PubMed)
(6) Structural analysis of phospho-D-mannan-protein complexes isolated from yeast and mold form cells of Candida albicans NIH A-207 serotype A strain by Shibata N1, Fukasawa S, Kobayashi H, Tojo M, Yonezu T, Ambo A, Ohkubo Y, Suzuki S.(PubMed)
(7) The effect of antifungal combination on transcripts of a subset of drug-resistance genes in clinical isolates of Candida species induced biofilms by Ibrahim NH1, Melake NA2, Somily AM3, Zakaria AS4, Baddour MM5, Mahmoud AZ6(PubMed)
(8) Antifungal drug resistance in pathogenic fungi. by Vanden Bossche H1, Dromer F, Improvisi I, Lozano-Chiu M, Rex JH, Sanglard D.(PubMed)
(9) The genetic basis of fluconazole resistance development in Candida albicans by Morschhäuser J1.(PubMed)
(10) A proteomic approach to understanding the development of multidrug-resistant Candida albicans strains by Kusch H1, Biswas K, Schwanfelder S, Engelmann S, Rogers PD, Hecker M, Morschhäuser J.(PubMed)
(230) Edible mushrooms: improving human health and promoting quality life by Valverde ME1, Hernández-Pérez T1, Paredes-López O1.(PubMed)
(231) [Effect of some vitamins on activity of immunocompetent cells].[Article in Russian]by Nezgovorov DV.(PubMed)
(232) Antioxidants keep the potentially probiotic but highly oxygen-sensitive human gut bacterium Faecalibacterium prausnitzii alive at ambient air by Khan MT1, van Dijl JM1, Harmsen HJ1.(PubMed)
(233) Storing red blood cells with vitamin C and N-acetylcysteine prevents oxidative stress-related lesions: a metabolomics overview by Pallotta V1, Gevi F1, D'alessandro A1, Zolla L1.(PubMed)
(234) Red blood cell metabolism under prolonged anaerobic storage by D'Alessandro A1, Gevi F, Zolla L.(PubMed)
(235) Alterations in antioxidant defense system of workers chronically exposed to arsenic, cadmium and mercury from coal flying ash by Zeneli L1, Sekovanić A, Ajvazi M, Kurti L, Daci N.(PubMed)
(236) Indomethacin-induced translocation of bacteria across enteric epithelia is reactive oxygen species-dependent and reduced by vitamin C by Schoultz I1, McKay CM, Graepel R, Phan VC, Wang A, Söderholm J, McKay DM.(PubMed)
(237) Vitamin C derivative ascorbyl palmitate promotes ultraviolet-B-induced lipid peroxidation and cytotoxicity in keratinocytes by Meves A1, Stock SN, Beyerle A, Pittelkow MR, Peus D.(PubMed)
238. Effects of dried fish on antioxidant levels in rat liver by Anilakumar KR1, Khanum F, Krishna KR, Viswanathan KR.(PubMed)
(239) Vitamin A and retinoic acid in T cell-related immunity by Ross AC1.(PubMed)
(240) Vitamin A and immune regulation: role of retinoic acid in gut-associated dendritic cell education, immune protection and tolerance by Cassani B1, Villablanca EJ, De Calisto J, Wang S, Mora JR.(PubMed)
(241) Modulatory role of vitamin A on the Candida albicans-induced immune response in human monocytes by Klassert TE1, Hanisch A, Bräuer J, Klaile E, Heyl KA, Mansour MK, Tam JM, Vyas JM, Slevogt H.(PubMed)
(242) [Toxicology of the synthetic antioxidants BHA and BHT in comparison with the natural antioxidant vitamin E].[Article in German]by Kahl R1, Kappus H.(PubMed)
(243) Effectiveness of antioxidants (vitamin C and E) with and without sunscreens as topical photoprotectants by Darr D1, Dunston S, Faust H, Pinnell S.(PubMed)
(244) Immune dysfunction and cytokine production in hemodialysis. Could they be lessened by vitamin E-coated dialyzer membrane by Senatore M, Cecere P, Colombo P, Costantini L, Filiberti O, Piccini G, Peona C, Buemi M, Nicoletti A, Rizzuto G.(PubMed)
(245) Prospective crossover trial of the influence of vitamin E-coated dialyzer membranes on T-cell activation and cytokine induction by Girndt M1, Lengler S, Kaul H, Sester U, Sester M, Köhler H.(PubMed)
(246) Vitamin E and immunity by Moriguchi S1, Muraga M.(PubMed)
(247) The role of vitamin E in T-cell differentiation and the decrease of cellular immunity with Moriguchi S1.(PubMed)

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