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By Kyle J. Norton Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.
What is Candida Albicans
Candida albicans is a member of a large group of micro organism whose cells contain complex structures enclosed within the membranes, including yeast(2)(3), fungi(4)(5)(6), and mold(6) that live among the gut flora in the human mouth and gastrointestinal tract. In fact, under normal circumstances, Candida albicans that does not cause harmful effects, but overgrowth results in candidiasis. Non-albicans Candida (NAC) species cause 35-65% of all candidaemias in the general patient population(1). According to joint study, in many cases, biofilm(microorganisms with cells stick to each other on a surface) formation(7) gene mutations(8) and overexpression of genes(9)(10) are often associated with increased Candida resistance toward antifungal agents.
Candida albicans consequences
1. What happen if candida become fungus
When Candida growth becomes uncontrolled and become fungus, its metabolites and/or toxins(117)(118) interfere with the functioning of nutrient-uptake(107)(108) and penetrate into the bloodstream, causing
a) Neuro effects
Candida produces toxins(acetaldehyde and ethanol)(112)(113) in large quantity that affect our brain and interfere with our biochemical processes, leading to upset levels of hormones and many key chemicals(109), resulting in symptoms of fatigue, aggression, depression and toxicity and schizophrenia(110)(111).
As the innermost membrane of the four coats of the intestinal wall becomes permeable due to fungus(114)(115), partially digested foods, toxins produced by fungus and chemical molecules can enter the bloodstream and reach organs that suppress their normal functions, causing immune dysfunction(116)(117) in a long run and many kinds of chronic illness(118)(119).
c) Reproductive dysfunction
Overgrowth candida can cause the reproductive tract infection(120). For female, it leads to infections of the upper reproductive tract (fallopian tubes, ovary and uterus)(123), and/or the lower reproductive tract(124) (vagina, cervix and vulva)(121)(122), for male, it is at the penis(127), testicles, urethra(128) or the sperm tube(125), causing reproductive dysfunction, including infertility(126).
d) Premenstrual syndrome
As over growth candida binding to hormones(130), it alters the pathway and their shape by preventing them entering the target receptor sites, that make certain hormones inactive, leading to estrogen and progesterone effected cell growth, morphology and virulence(131), in regulating blood sugar(132) and endocrine disruptor causes of premenstrual syndrome(129).
e) Autoimmune disorders
e.1. After entering blood stream, it causes allergies reaction of the immune system(133)(134), but some of antigens' molecules are similar to molecules of human tissue(135), resulting of immune system attacking both the antigens and the body's healthy tissues, leading to autoimmune disorders(136).
e. 2. The main target of candida target
The main target of candida is to evade the body's immune system for their forever survival in the host body by targeting the immune system response in fighting against invading organism(137) as they change the receptors of foreign organism or theirs' form which are displaying(138), making them difficult for the body's immune cells to react appropriately(19)(140).
e.3. Digestive track colonization
The main purpose of Candida is trying to invade the intestinal wall by suppressing immune system responds(142) with inflammation(141), leading to prolong inflammation, (the prolonged inflammation is called ulceration colitis if it occurs in the large intestine(143)(144) and it is called Crohn's disease if it occurs in the small intestine(145)(146)147) that can cause of digestive track colonization of the host body.
e.4. The mind and emotion
If candida overgrowth, it produces toxins (canditoxin and ethanol) that affect our brain and it releases metabolites that interfere with our biochemical processes in hormone production(109), leading to fatigue, aggression, depression and toxicity(110)(111).
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(1) Non-albicans Candida spp. causing fungaemia: pathogenicity and antifungal resistance by Krcmery V1, Barnes AJ.(PubMed)
(2) Pathogenicity and drug resistance in Candida albicans and other yeast species. A review by Mishra NN1, Prasad T, Sharma N, Payasi A, Prasad R, Gupta DK, Singh R.(PubMed)
(3) Multidrug resistance in yeast Candida by Prasad R1, Kapoor K.(PubMerd)
(4) New evidence that Candida albicans possesses additional ATP-binding cassette MDR-like genes: implications for antifungal azole resistance. by Walsh TJ1, Kasai M, Francesconi A, Landsman D, Chanock SJ.(PubMed)
(5) Mechanisms of resistance to azole antifungal agents in Candida albicans isolates from AIDS patients involve specific multidrug transporters.by Sanglard D1, Kuchler K, Ischer F, Pagani JL, Monod M, Bille J.(PubMed)
(6) Structural analysis of phospho-D-mannan-protein complexes isolated from yeast and mold form cells of Candida albicans NIH A-207 serotype A strain by Shibata N1, Fukasawa S, Kobayashi H, Tojo M, Yonezu T, Ambo A, Ohkubo Y, Suzuki S.(PubMed)
(7) The effect of antifungal combination on transcripts of a subset of drug-resistance genes in clinical isolates of Candida species induced biofilms by Ibrahim NH1, Melake NA2, Somily AM3, Zakaria AS4, Baddour MM5, Mahmoud AZ6(PubMed)
(8) Antifungal drug resistance in pathogenic fungi. by Vanden Bossche H1, Dromer F, Improvisi I, Lozano-Chiu M, Rex JH, Sanglard D.(PubMed)
(9) The genetic basis of fluconazole resistance development in Candida albicans by Morschhäuser J1.(PubMed)
(10) A proteomic approach to understanding the development of multidrug-resistant Candida albicans strains by Kusch H1, Biswas K, Schwanfelder S, Engelmann S, Rogers PD, Hecker M, Morschhäuser J.(PubMed)
(107) Oral candidiasis and nutritional deficiencies in elderly hospitalised patients. Paillaud E1, Merlier I, Dupeyron C, Scherman E, Poupon J, Bories PN.(PubMed)
(108) Nutritional factors and oral candidosis. Samaranayake LP (PubMed)
(109) Relative risk of vaginal candidiasis after use of antibiotics compared with antidepressants in women: postmarketing surveillance data in England. Wilton L1, Kollarova M, Heeley E, Shakir S.(PubMed)
(110) Effect of antibiotics on vulvovaginal candidiasis: a MetroNet study. Xu J1, Schwartz K, Bartoces M, Monsur J, Severson RK, Sobel JD.(PubMed)
(111) Quantifying effect of combined oral contraceptive pill on functional ovarian reserve as measured by serum anti-Müllerian hormone and small antral follicle count using three-dimensional ultrasound. Deb S1, Campbell BK, Pincott-Allen C, Clewes JS, Cumberpatch G, Raine-Fenning NJ.(PubMed)
(112)[Oral contraception and carbohydrate metabolism--the physiopathological explanation].[Article in French], Hilal M.(PubMed)
(113) PPARγ ligands switched high fat diet-induced macrophage M2b polarization toward M2a thereby improving intestinal Candida elimination. Lefèvre L1, Galès A, Olagnier D, Bernad J, Perez L, Burcelin R, Valentin A, Auwerx J, Pipy B, Coste A.(PubMed)
(114) The epidemiology of vaginal colonisation with group B streptococci in a sexually transmitted disease clinic.Honig E1, Mouton JW, van der Meijden WI.(PubMed)
(115)Risk factors for Salmonella infection. Loss of gastric acid linked to candidiasis. Larner AJ.(PubMed)
(116)Influence of gastric colonization with Candida albicans on ulcer healing in rats: effect of ranitidine, aspirin and probiotic therapy. Brzozowski T1, Zwolinska-Wcislo M, Konturek PC, Kwiecien S, Drozdowicz D, Konturek SJ, Stachura J, Budak A, Bogdal J, Pawlik WW, Hahn EG.(PubMed)
(117) Growth limitation in Candida lipolytica cultures and supersynthesis of metabolites]. [Article in Russian] Lozinov AB, Finogenova TV, Glazunova LM, Illarionova VI.(PubMed)
(118) Enterococcus faecalis inhibits superantigen toxic shock syndrome toxin-1-induced interleukin-8 from human vaginal epithelial cells through tetramic acids. Brosnahan AJ1, Merriman JA, Salgado-Pabón W, Ford B, Schlievert PM.(PubMed)
(123 Cytotoxicity and metabolic stress induced by acetaldehyde in human intestinal LS174T goblet-like cells. Elamin E1, Masclee A2, Troost F2, Dekker J3, Jonkers D2.(PubMed)
(124) Effect of corilagin on membrane permeability of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Li N1, Luo M, Fu YJ, Zu YG, Wang W, Zhang L, Yao LP, Zhao CJ, Sun Y.(PubMed)
(125)A new look at the antibiotic amphotericin B effect on Candida albicans plasma membrane permeability and cell viability functions. Chudzik B1, Koselski M, Czuryło A, Trębacz K, Gagoś M.(PubMed)
(126) New insights into innate immune control of systemic candidiasis. Lionakis MS(PubMed)
(127 )Immunogenetics of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Morran MP1, Vonberg A1, Khadra A2, Pietropaolo M3.(PubMed)
(128) Burden of Fungal Disease - Ireland. Dorgan E1, Denning DW2, McMullan R3.(PubMed)
(129) Burden of serious fungal infections in Spain.
Rodriguez-Tudela JL1, Alastruey-Izquierdo A2, Gago S3, Cuenca-Estrella M2, León C4, Miro JM5, Nuñez Boluda A6, Ruiz Camps I7, Sole A8, Denning DW9; University of Manchester in association with the LIFE program at. Electronic address: http://www.LIFE-worldwide.org.(PubMed)
(130) Prevalence study of genital tract infections in pregnant women referred to health centers in Iran.
infections among pregnant women at Omdurman Maternity Hospital in Khartoum, Sudan.
Reproductive tract infections among married women in Upper Egypt. Sullam SA1, Mahfouz AA, Dabbous NI, el-Barrawy M, el-Said MM.(PubMed)
(133) Characterization of low molecular weight antimicrobial peptide from human female reproductive tract. Sharma S1, Sethi S, Prasad R, Samanta P, Rajwanshi A, Malhotra S, Sharma M.(PubMed)
(134) Lower genital tract infections in infertile Nigerian women compared with controls.Okonofua FE1, Ako-Nai KA, Dighitoghi MD.(PubMed)
(135) ion of oocyte fertilization by assisted reproductive techniques and increased sperm DNA fragmentation in the presence of Candida albicans: a case report. Burrello N1, Calogero AE, Perdichizzi A, Salmeri M, D'Agata R, Vicari E.(PubMed)
(136) Studies on the significance of positive bacterial semen cultures in male fertility in Nigeria.Onemu SO1, Ibeh IN.(PubMed)
(137) Mycetomatoid infection of the penis by Candida albicans. Mastrolorenzo A1, Giomi B, Cipollini EM, Tammaro R, Decarli N, Cammelli D, Fabiani Tropeano F, Tiradritti L, Difonzo EM, Zuccati G.(PubMed)
(138) Candida albicans epididymo-orchitis and fungemia in a patient with chronic myelogenous leukemia Mark Pimentel, MD, Lindsay E Nicolle, MD FRCPC, and Salman Qureshi, MD FRCPC(PubMed)
(139) Normocalcemic tetany and candidiasis. Galland L.(PubMed)
(140) Interaction of Candida albicans with genital mucosa: effect of sex hormones on adherence of yeasts in vitro. Kalo A1, Segal E.(PubMed)
(141) Response of pathogenic and non-pathogenic yeasts to steroids. Prasad R1, Devaux F, Dhamgaye S, Banerjee D.(PubMed)
(142)Evaluation of the influence of blood glucose level on oral candidal colonization in complete denture wearers with Type-II Diabetes Mellitus: An in vivo Study. Ganapathy DM1, Joseph S, Ariga P, Selvaraj A.(PubMed)
(143)Role of L3T4+ lymphocytes in protective immunity to systemic Candida albicans infection in mice. Cenci E1, Romani L, Vecchiarelli A, Puccetti P, Bistoni F.(PubMed)
(144)[Squamous epithelial carcinoma in a 27-year-old patient with cellular immune defect].[Article in German] Kübler A1, Ziegler C, Barth T, Zöller J.(PubvMed)
(145)Immune thrombocytopaenic purpura: an autoimmune cross-link between infections and vaccines.
(147)Oxidative and nitrosative stress on phagocytes' function: from effective defense to immunity evasion mechanisms. Ferrari CK1, Souto PC, França EL, Honorio-França AC.(PubMed)
(148)IL-17 signaling in host defense against Candida albicans. Gaffen SL1, Hernández-Santos N, Peterson AC.(PubMed)
(149)Th17 cells in immunity to Candida albicans. Hernández-Santos N1, Gaffen SL.(PubMed)
(150)The adaptor CARD9 is required for adaptive but not innate immunity to oral mucosal Candida albicans infections. Bishu S1, Hernández-Santos N, Simpson-Abelson MR, Huppler AR, Conti HR, Ghilardi N, Mamo AJ, Gaffen SL(PubMed)
(151)Human intestinal epithelial cells respond to β-glucans via Dectin-1 and Syk. Cohen-Kedar S1, Baram L, Elad H, Brazowski E, Guzner-Gur H, Dotan I.(PubMed)
(152)Innate immunity induced by fungal β-glucans via dectin-1 signaling pathway.
colitis].[Article in Polish] Zwolińska-Wcisło M1, Sliwowski Z, Drozdowicz D, Kwiecień S, Mazurkiewicz-Janik M, Trojanowska D, Rudnicka-Sosin L, Mach T, Budak A, Brzozowski T, Konturek SJ, Pawlik WW.(PubMed)
(154)Effect of Candida colonization on human ulcerative colitis and the healing of inflammatory changes of the colon in the experimental model of colitis ulcerosa. Zwolinska-Wcislo M1, Brzozowski T, Budak A, Kwiecien S, Sliwowski Z, Drozdowicz D, Trojanowska D, Rudnicka-Sosin L, Mach T, Konturek SJ, Pawlik WW.(PubMed)
(155)Candida albicans is an immunogen for anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibody markers of Crohn's disease.Standaert-Vitse A1, Jouault T, Vandewalle P, Mille C, Seddik M, Sendid B, Mallet JM, Colombel JF, Poulain D.(PubMed)
(156)Candida albicans colonization and ASCA in familial Crohn's disease. Standaert-Vitse A1, Sendid B, Joossens M, François N, Vandewalle-El Khoury P, Branche J, Van Kruiningen H, Jouault T, Rutgeerts P, Gower-Rousseau C, Libersa C, Neut C, Broly F, Chamaillard M, Vermeire S, Poulain D, Colombel JF.(PubMed)