Saturday, 14 March 2015

Holistic approach for Prevention, controlling and Treatment of Candida Albicans Overgrowth- The Effectiveness of Minerals and Mineral Compounds

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By Kyle J. Norton Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

What is Candida Albicans

Candida albicans are members of a large group of micro organism whose cells contain complex structures enclosed within the membranes, including yeast(2)(3), fungi(4)(5)(6), and mold(6) that live among the gut flora in the human mouth and gastrointestinal tract. In fact, under normal circumstances, Candida albicans that does not cause harmful effects, but overgrowth results in candidiasis. Non-albicans Candida (NAC) species cause 35-65% of all candidaemias in the general patient population(1). According to joint study, in many cases, biofilm(microorganisms with cells stick to each other on a surface) formation(7) gene mutations(8) and overexpression of genes(9)(10) are often associated with increased Candida resistance toward antifungal agents.

Treatments and controllings
C. Minerals and mineral compounds1. Coral Calcium
One of the richest sources of Calcium not only is an important mineral in building stronger, denser bones early in life and keeping bones strong(248) and healthy later in life and preventing the risk of osterporosis(249), but also helps to alkalize the body that eliminate the favor environment for candida overgrowth(250).

2. Magnesium Citrate
Magnesium Citrate is a magnesium salt of citric acid, a chemical agent used medicinally as a saline laxative(251). Besides it is important to maintain proper level of pH(252) for the body's organs to enhance their biochemical pathways for detoxification(253), that limits or reduces the over growth of candida, it also acts as a defecation in stimulating naturally bowel movement.
The mineral, magnesium plays a key role in the immune response, by acting as a co-factor for immunoglobulin synthesis(254) that significantly increases for both IgA and IgG, the antibody molecules that protect our body against bacterial and viral infections(255) and the lining of the respiratory passages, gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract(255).

3. Lithium chloride
Lithium chloride is a chemical compound with the formula LiCl. The salt is a typical ionic compound. While maintaining the proper PH levels(257), lithium also suppresses the yeast phosphoglucomutase activity(256) and inhibits the candida albicans filamentation and hyphal outgrowth(258).

4. Sodium bicarbonate
Used as an alkaline treatment(259), sodium bicarbonate is important to balance the levels of PH by taking away the acidity environment for candida overgrowth(260)(261). Researchers  found that 5% sodium bicarbonate on the adherence of Candida albicans to thermally activated acrylic resin proved to be a viable alternative in the reduction of Candida albicans(262).

5. Phosphonium salts
Phosphonium salts with long alkyl chains (C18) were found to show high levels of antimicrobial activity(263). In the alkyltrimethylphosphonium salts(263), the bactericidal activity against S. aureus and Escherichia coli increased with increasing alkyl chain length(263), probably through its antimicrobial polymers(264), according to the joint study by University of New Brunswick, Southwest Petroleum University, and North China Electric Power University

6. Zinc
Zinc besides is an important mineral in boosting immune system activity(265)(266). Its nano-structure zinc(II) coordination compounds, has been used in zinc therapy to treat candida overgrowth(267) by promoting metallothionein (MT)(found in high concentration in intestinal mucosa)synthesis(268) through its anti inflammatory activity(269).

7. Etc

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+ References
(1) Non-albicans Candida spp. causing fungaemia: pathogenicity and antifungal resistance by Krcmery V1, Barnes AJ.(PubMed)
(2) Pathogenicity and drug resistance in Candida albicans and other yeast species. A review by Mishra NN1, Prasad T, Sharma N, Payasi A, Prasad R, Gupta DK, Singh R.(PubMed)
(3)  Multidrug resistance in yeast Candida by Prasad R1, Kapoor K.(PubMerd)
(4) New evidence that Candida albicans possesses additional ATP-binding cassette MDR-like genes: implications for antifungal azole resistance. by Walsh TJ1, Kasai M, Francesconi A, Landsman D, Chanock SJ.(PubMed)
(5) Mechanisms of resistance to azole antifungal agents in Candida albicans isolates from AIDS patients involve specific multidrug Sanglard D1, Kuchler K, Ischer F, Pagani JL, Monod M, Bille J.(PubMed)
(6) Structural analysis of phospho-D-mannan-protein complexes isolated from yeast and mold form cells of Candida albicans NIH A-207 serotype A strain by Shibata N1, Fukasawa S, Kobayashi H, Tojo M, Yonezu T, Ambo A, Ohkubo Y, Suzuki S.(PubMed)
(7) The effect of antifungal combination on transcripts of a subset of drug-resistance genes in clinical isolates of Candida species induced biofilms by Ibrahim NH1, Melake NA2, Somily AM3, Zakaria AS4, Baddour MM5, Mahmoud AZ6(PubMed)
(8) Antifungal drug resistance in pathogenic fungi. by Vanden Bossche H1, Dromer F, Improvisi I, Lozano-Chiu M, Rex JH, Sanglard D.(PubMed)
(9) The genetic basis of fluconazole resistance development in Candida albicans by Morschhäuser J1.(PubMed)
(10) A proteomic approach to understanding the development of multidrug-resistant Candida albicans strains by Kusch H1, Biswas K, Schwanfelder S, Engelmann S, Rogers PD, Hecker M, Morschhäuser J.(PubMed)
(249) By the way, doctor. I recently saw a TV ad for a product called "coral calcium," which is supposed to prevent osteoporosis and other diseases. What do you know about it by Robb-Nicholson C.(PubMed)
(250) The effect of probiotic bacteria on transepithelial calcium transport and calcium uptake in human intestinal-like Caco-2 cells by Gilman J1, Cashman KD.(PubMed)
(251) Sodium Picosulfate with Magnesium Citrate (SPMC) Plus Laxative Is a Good Alternative to Conventional Large Volume Polyethylene Glycol in Bowel Preparation: A Multicenter Randomized Single-Blinded Trial by Kim HG1, Huh KC, Koo HS, Kim SE, Kim JO, Kim TI, Kim HS, Myung SJ, Park DI, Shin JE, Yang DH, Lee SH, Lee JS, Lee CK, Chang DK, Joo YE, Cha JM, Hong SP, Kim HJ.(PubMed)
(252) Effect of potassium magnesium citrate on thiazide-induced hypokalemia and magnesium loss.
Ruml LA1, Pak CY.(PubMed)
(253) Efficacy of magnesium citrate cathartic in pediatric toxic ingestions by Sue YJ1, Woolf A, Shannon M.(PubMed)
(254) Study of possible correlation between BLOOD IMMUNOGLOBULIN G INCREASED and MAGNESIUM CITRATE(Meds fact)
(255)In vitro antiviral and antibacterial activity of commercial intravenous immunoglobulin preparations--a potential role for adjuvant intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in infectious diseases by  Krause I1, Wu R, Sherer Y, Patanik M, Peter JB, Shoenfeld Y.(PubMed)
(256)In-silico identification and characterization of organic and inorganic chemical stress responding genes in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) by Barozai MY1, Bashir F2, Muzaffar S2, Afzal S2, Behlil F2, Khan M2.(PubMed)
(257) Four pathogenic Candida species differ in salt tolerance. Krauke Y1, Sychrova H.(PubMed)
(259) A sodium carbonate-bicarbonate buffer for alkaline phosphatases by DELORY GE, KING EJ (PubMed))260) The relationship between the acid and alkaline phosphatase activity and the adherence of clinical isolates of Candida parapsilosis to human buccal epithelial cells by Fernanado PH1, Panagoda GJ, Samaranayake LP.(PubMed)
(260) Candida albicans Rim13p, a protease required for Rim101p processing at acidic and alkaline pHs by Li M1, Martin SJ, Bruno VM, Mitchell AP, Davis DA.(PubMed)
(261) Adaptation to environmental pH in Candida albicans and its relation to pathogenesis. Davis D1.(PubMed)
(262) Effect of sodium bicarbonate on Candida albicans adherence to thermally activated acrylic resin by Sousa FA1, Paradella TC, Koga-Ito CY, Jorge AO.(PubMed)
(263) Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of dimethyl- and trimethyl-substituted phosphonium salts with alkyl chains of various lengths by  A Kanazawa, T Ikeda, and T Endo(PubMed)
(264) Antimicrobial Polymeric Materials with Quaternary Ammonium and Phosphonium Salts by Xue Y1,2, Xiao H3, Zhang Y4.(PubMed)
(265) Zinc and the immune system by Rink L1, Gabriel P.(PubMed)
(266) The immune system and the impact of zinc during aging by Haase H1, Rink L.(PubMed)
(267) Some new nano-structure zinc(II) coordination compounds of an imidazolidine Schiff base: spectral, thermal, antimicrobial properties and DNA interaction. Montazerozohori M1, Musavi SA2, Naghiha A3, Zohour MM4.(PubMed)
(268) Candida article zinc and metallothionein(Cure zone)
(269) Metallothionein as an Anti-Inflammatory Mediator(Mediators of inflammation)

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