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By Kyle J. Norton Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.
What is Candida Albicans
Candida albicans are members of a large group of micro organism whose cells contain complex structures enclosed within the membranes, including yeast(2)(3), fungi(4)(5)(6), and mold(6) that live among the gut flora in the human mouth and gastrointestinal tract. In fact, under normal circumstances, Candida albicans that does not cause harmful effects, but overgrowth results in candidiasis. Non-albicans Candida (NAC) species cause 35-65% of all candidaemias in the general patient population(1). According to joint study, in many cases, biofilm(microorganisms with cells stick to each other on a surface) formation(7) gene mutations(8) and overexpression of genes(9)(10) are often associated with increased Candida resistance toward antifungal agents.
Treatments and controllings
Anti fungal products
1. Manuka Honey
Manuka honeyhas been known to benefit humans in healing wounds and injuries(309) without inducing damage to cells. The product also contains hydrogen peroxide claimed to have antimicrobial property(310), including candida albicans(311).
2. Undecylenic acid
Undecylenic acid is the common name of the 10-undecenoic acid, an organic unsaturated fatty acid derived from castor oil, It is a natural antimicrobial property(312)against fungal skin infections(313)(314) and Candida albicans(315).
3. Caprylic acid
Caprylic acid is the common name for the eight-carbon saturated fatty acid found naturally in coconuts and breast milk, used in treatments for a variety of conditions, including Candida(316)(317).
4. Echinacea angustifolia
Echinacea angustifolia is a herbaceous plant species Echinacea angustifolia, belonging to the family Asteraceae native to Northern America. Echinacea angustifolia besides enhances the immune system function(318)(319) against invasion of bacteria and viral through its antioxidant effects, it also used to treat bacterial infections(320) and candida(318) in herb medicine.
Horopeit is a genus Pseudowintera, part of family Winteraceae. It contains a compound polygodial, a chemical compound used to suppress the growth of candida(321)(322) by damaging the permeable cell membrane of yeast(322).
Oregano is a genus of the mint family Lamiaceae, native to southwestern Eurasia and the Mediterranean region. The herb not only promotes digestive health(323), clear skin and a healthy immune system(324), but also dehydrates candida(325) by reacting with the water in the bloodstream, through its phytochemicals Carvacrol and Thymol(326).
7. Aloe vera
Aloe vera is a genus Aloe belonging to the family Asphodelaceae, originated in the Sudan. Beside containing significant amounts of amino acids, enzymes, vitamins, minerals and antioxidants which help to enhance the immune function(327) in fighting against virus and bacteria infection and inflammation(328), it also maintains a proper PH levels that inhibit the growth of candida(329) and repairs and seals the intestinal wall, which stops Candida from actually penetrating through into your blood stream(330).
8. Tea tree oil
Tea tree oil is a pale yellow color to nearly clear essential oil extracted from the leaves of the Narrow-leaved Tea-tree, native to the northeast coast of New South Wales, Australia. In Fluconazole-resistant candida albicans strains, in dose-depend manner, tea tree oil strongly exhibited fluconazole activity against fluconazole-resistant C. albicans strains, through its anti fungal activity(331). Terpinen-4-ol, the main bioactive component found in teat tree oil, showed to accelerate clearance all Candida strains from the vagina , including the azole-resistant forms in rat vaginal infection model(332)
9. Tannate plant extracts
Tannate is the salt or ester of tannic acid. Tannate plant extract is a powerful anti fungal agent(333)(334) by destroying candida selectively without harming the good flora in the body(335). It is said that tannate plant extract is effective in treating bacteria, viruses, fungal infections due to its antifungal(333)(334), anti-inflammatory properties(336).
Biotin or viyamin B7, a coenzyme in the metabolism of fatty acids and leucine, plays an important role in gluconeogenesis(337). According to Università degli Studi di Torino, patients with biotin deficiency are at high risk of candida albicans overgrowth(338). Biotin prevents yeast to change into its fungal form(339), thus reducing risk of candida albicans overgrowth.
11. Probiotics (friendly bacteria)
Probiotic is live microorganisms which benefits the host. Intake of probiotics enhances the production of hydrogen peroxide(340) that plays a important role in preventing candida overgrowth and through self-multiple mechanisms(341).
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(1) Non-albicans Candida spp. causing fungaemia: pathogenicity and antifungal resistance by Krcmery V1, Barnes AJ.(PubMed)
(2) Pathogenicity and drug resistance in Candida albicans and other yeast species. A review by Mishra NN1, Prasad T, Sharma N, Payasi A, Prasad R, Gupta DK, Singh R.(PubMed)
(3) Multidrug resistance in yeast Candida by Prasad R1, Kapoor K.(PubMerd)
(4) New evidence that Candida albicans possesses additional ATP-binding cassette MDR-like genes: implications for antifungal azole resistance. by Walsh TJ1, Kasai M, Francesconi A, Landsman D, Chanock SJ.(PubMed)
(5) Mechanisms of resistance to azole antifungal agents in Candida albicans isolates from AIDS patients involve specific multidrug transporters.by Sanglard D1, Kuchler K, Ischer F, Pagani JL, Monod M, Bille J.(PubMed)
(6) Structural analysis of phospho-D-mannan-protein complexes isolated from yeast and mold form cells of Candida albicans NIH A-207 serotype A strain by Shibata N1, Fukasawa S, Kobayashi H, Tojo M, Yonezu T, Ambo A, Ohkubo Y, Suzuki S.(PubMed)
(7) The effect of antifungal combination on transcripts of a subset of drug-resistance genes in clinical isolates of Candida species induced biofilms by Ibrahim NH1, Melake NA2, Somily AM3, Zakaria AS4, Baddour MM5, Mahmoud AZ6(PubMed)
(8) Antifungal drug resistance in pathogenic fungi. by Vanden Bossche H1, Dromer F, Improvisi I, Lozano-Chiu M, Rex JH, Sanglard D.(PubMed)
(9) The genetic basis of fluconazole resistance development in Candida albicans by Morschhäuser J1.(PubMed)
(10) A proteomic approach to understanding the development of multidrug-resistant Candida albicans strains by Kusch H1, Biswas K, Schwanfelder S, Engelmann S, Rogers PD, Hecker M, Morschhäuser J.(PubMed)
(309) Antibacterial activity of hydrogen peroxide and the lactoperoxidase-hydrogen peroxide-thiocyanate system against oral streptococciby Thomas EL1, Milligan TW, Joyner RE, Jefferson MM.
(310) Effect of hydrogen peroxide on antibacterial activities of Canadian honeysby Brudzynski K1.(PubMed)
(311) Streptomyces sp. JS520 produces exceptionally high quantities of undecylprodigiosin with antibacterial, antioxidative, and UV-protective propertiesby Stankovic N1, Radulovic V, Petkovic M, Vuckovic I, Jadranin M, Vasiljevic B, Nikodinovic-Runic J.(PubMed)
(312) Antimicrobial polyurethane thermosets based on undecylenic acid: synthesis and evaluation.by Lluch C1, Esteve-Zarzoso B, Bordons A, Lligadas G, Ronda JC, Galià M, Cádiz V.(PubMed)
(313) Allergic contact dermatitis from undecylenic acid in a commercial antifungal nail solution by Anguita JL1, Escutia B, Marí JI, Rodríguez M, De La Cuadra J, Aliaga A.(PubMed)
(314) Undecylenic acid and fungous infections by Landau JW.(PubMed)
(315) Undecylenic acid inhibits morphogenesis of Candida albicansby McLain N1, Ascanio R, Baker C, Strohaver RA, Dolan JW.(PubMed)
(316) [Inhibition of Candida mycelia growth by a medium chain fatty acids, capric acid in vitro and its therapeutic efficacy in murine oral candidiasis].[Article in Japanese]by Takahashi M1, Inoue S, Hayama K, Ninomiya K, Abe S.(PubMed)
(317) [Effects of inhibitory activity on mycelial growth of Candida albicans and therapy for murine oral candidiasis by the combined use of terpinen-4-ol and a middle-chain fatty acid, capric acid].[Article in Japanese]by Ninomiya K1, Hayama K, Ishijima S, Takahashi M, Kurihara J, Abe S.(PubMed)
(318) In vitro and in vivo immune stimulating effects of a new standardized Echinacea angustifolia root extract (Polinacea) by Morazzoni P1, Cristoni A, Di Pierro F, Avanzini C, Ravarino D, Stornello S, Zucca M, Musso T.(PubMed)
(319) Immune enhancing effects of Echinacea purpurea root extract by reducing regulatory T cell number and function by Kim HR, Oh SK, Lim W, Lee HK, Moon BI, Seoh JY.(PubMed)
(320) Applications of the phytomedicine Echinacea purpurea (Purple Coneflower) in infectious diseases. by Hudson JB1.(PubMed)
(321) Anethole, a potential antimicrobial synergist, converts a fungistatic dodecanol to a fungicidal agentby Fujita K1, Fujita T, Kubo I.(PubMed)
(322) Polygodial, an antifungal potentiator by Kubo I1, Taniguchi M.(PubMed)
(323) Enterococci from piglets--probiotic properties and responsiveness to natural antibacterial substances by Strompfová V1, Lauková A.(PubMed)
(324) Dietary supplementation with two Lamiaceae herbs-(oregano and sage) modulates innate immunity parameters in Lumbricus terrestris by Vattem DA1, Lester C, Deleon R, Jamison B, Maitin V.(PubMed)
(327) Augmented humoral immune response and decreased cell-mediated immunity by Aloe vera in rats. by Halder S1, Mehta AK, Mediratta PK.(PubMed)
(328) Antimicrobial activity of preparation Bioaron C by Gawron-Gzella A, Michalak A, Kędzia A.(PubMed)
(329) Antimicrobial activity of plant extracts on Candida albicans: an in vitro study by Doddanna SJ1, Patel S, Sundarrao MA, Veerabhadrappa RS.(PubMed)
(330) Antifungals: Aloe Vera(The candida diets)
(331) The Influence of Tea Tree Oil (Melaleuca alternifolia) on Fluconazole Activity against Fluconazole-Resistant Candida albicans Strains by Mertas A1, Garbusińska A1, Szliszka E1, Jureczko A1, Kowalska M1, Król W1.(PubMed)
(332) In vivo activity of terpinen-4-ol, the main bioactive component of Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel (tea tree) oil against azole-susceptible and -resistant human pathogenic Candida species by Mondello F1, De Bernardis F, Girolamo A, Cassone A, Salvatore G.(PubMed)
(333) [The effect of tannic acid on colonization of Candida in tissue conditioning material].