Friday, 20 March 2015

The Holistic approach for Prevention, controlling and Treatment of Candida Albicans Overgrowth - Reducing Intestine Dysbiosis

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By Kyle J. Norton Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

What is Candida Albicans

Candida albicans are members of a large group of micro organism whose cells contain complex structures enclosed within the membranes, including yeast(2)(3), fungi(4)(5)(6), and mold(6) that live among the gut flora in the human mouth and gastrointestinal tract. In fact, under normal circumstances, Candida albicans that do not cause harmful effects, but overgrowth result in candidiasis. Non-albicans Candida (NAC) species cause 35-65% of all candidaemias in the general patient population(1). According to joint study, in many cases, biofilm(microorganisms with cells stick to each other on a surface) formation(7) gene mutations(8) and overexpression of genes(9)(10) are often associated with increased Candida resistance toward antifungal agents.

Prevention and controlling

Reducing intestinal dysbiosis (A condition with microbial imbalances within the body)

1. Probiotics
Probiotics are live micro-organisms conferred a health benefit on the host and found to be benefits the digestive system(363), including inflammatory bowel disease(364). According to Dalian Medical University, there are many causes of dysbbiosis, such as prolonged period intake of antibiotic used widely in conventional medicine for treatment of bacterial infection(365). Dr. McFarland LV at the University of Washington said that the use of probiotics restores the balance of undisturbed microbiota in healthy individual most effectively than patients with postdisruptive event and probiotic therapy and pre-existing disrupted microbiota and then postprobiotic therapy(366).

2. Prebiotics
Prebiotic, the non-digestible food ingredients and the most prevalent forms of prebiotic is nutritionally classed as soluble fiber(367), including Galactooligosaccharide, stimulated the production of number and/or activity of bifidobacteria and lactic acid bacteria(368) and/or activity in the digestive system(369) in ways claimed to be beneficial to health of the host, by counteracting to the overgrowth of bad bacteria(371)(372), including candida albicans.

3. Foods rich in FOS
(See above)

4. High fiber foods
Fiber is the indigestible portion of plant foods having two main components soluble and insoluble fiber, consisted non-starch polysaccharides such as arabinoxylans(woods and cereal grains), cellulose(a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of linked D-glucose unit) and many other plant component. While it is beneficial for alleviating symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome(373), such as diarrhea and/or constipation and abdominal discomfort, it is also a prebiotic(374) which is beneficial to health of the host by enhancing the production of good bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract(375) and counteracting to the overgrowth of bad bacteria, including candida albcans.

4. Avoid allergic foods
Eating allergic foods often cause symptoms of digestive disorders(376), including gas, stomach pains, diarrhea, constipation, bloating, etc. can cause allergen-producing L. lactis strains(377) induced imbalance of bacteria in digestive systems, leading to overgrowth of bad bacteria quickly.

5. Regular intake of Allium satvum (garlic)
Allium satvum is a species in the onion family Alliaceae, native to Central Asia. Garlic beside is best known for its effectiveness in treating hypertension(378), hyper cholesterol(379), blood thinner(380) and cancer(381), it also contains high amount of phytoncides that inhibits the growth of microorganisms(382) and phytoalexin called allicin was found to have anti-oxidative(383)(384) and anti-microbial effects(385) that would be helpful to keep a healthy digestive system and prevent the growth out of control of bad bacteria.

6. Enhances immune system
Living healthy and eating healthy foods such as such as whole grain, fresh fruits, vegetables, nuts and seeds, beans and legumes (see more of Over 100 Healthy Foods List ) provide your body with necessary nutrients, including antioxidants, vitamins and minerals, that not only optimizes the digestive absorption but also enhances the immune  system(386)(387)in fighting against inflammation(389) and infection(388) caused by virus and bacteria.

7. UVC therapy
Light therapy is considered as a type of treatment of exposing to daylight or to specific wavelengths of light, used to accelerate wound healing(390), hair growth, and improved blood properties(391)  Statistical analysis found in vitro candida strains were sensitive to UVC(392) and photodynamic therapy with malachite green(393).

8. Exercise
Exercise is important in enhancing the immune system(394) to reduce the likelihood of getting yeast infections(385) but also put your body in a better position to fight off the candida.

9. Reduce stress
Signs of stress may be cognitive, emotional, physical or behavioral, signs of poor judgment, a general negative outlook, can depress the immune system(395) and impair the digestive system(396), causing psoriasis(397), a chronic autoimmune disease and gastrointestinal tract infection(396), leading to more favorable conditions for unhealthy candida to multiple.

10. Specific sexual practices and sexual behavior
A study in USA revealed that a 75% percentage of women have had candida yeast overgrowth at some points in their lives in comparison to only 45% of men. Sexual practices such as receptive anal and oral sex and douching increase the risk of infectious candida(398). Risk of vulvovaginal candidiasis also increases  in women who have sex with several women partners(399)(400). If you noticed changes in your body such as thick, cheese-like discharges, pain during sex and an itchy burning sensation, check with your doctor immediately.

11. Etc.

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+ References
(1) Non-albicans Candida spp. causing fungaemia: pathogenicity and antifungal resistance by Krcmery V1, Barnes AJ.(PubMed)
(2) Pathogenicity and drug resistance in Candida albicans and other yeast species. A review by Mishra NN1, Prasad T, Sharma N, Payasi A, Prasad R, Gupta DK, Singh R.(PubMed)
(3)  Multidrug resistance in yeast Candida by Prasad R1, Kapoor K.(PubMerd)
(4) New evidence that Candida albicans possesses additional ATP-binding cassette MDR-like genes: implications for antifungal azole resistance. by Walsh TJ1, Kasai M, Francesconi A, Landsman D, Chanock SJ.(PubMed)
(5) Mechanisms of resistance to azole antifungal agents in Candida albicans isolates from AIDS patients involve specific multidrug Sanglard D1, Kuchler K, Ischer F, Pagani JL, Monod M, Bille J.(PubMed)
(6) Structural analysis of phospho-D-mannan-protein complexes isolated from yeast and mold form cells of Candida albicans NIH A-207 serotype A strain by Shibata N1, Fukasawa S, Kobayashi H, Tojo M, Yonezu T, Ambo A, Ohkubo Y, Suzuki S.(PubMed)
(7) The effect of antifungal combination on transcripts of a subset of drug-resistance genes in clinical isolates of Candida species induced biofilms by Ibrahim NH1, Melake NA2, Somily AM3, Zakaria AS4, Baddour MM5, Mahmoud AZ6(PubMed)
(8) Antifungal drug resistance in pathogenic fungi. by Vanden Bossche H1, Dromer F, Improvisi I, Lozano-Chiu M, Rex JH, Sanglard D.(PubMed)
(9) The genetic basis of fluconazole resistance development in Candida albicans by Morschhäuser J1.(PubMed)
(10) A proteomic approach to understanding the development of multidrug-resistant Candida albicans strains by Kusch H1, Biswas K, Schwanfelder S, Engelmann S, Rogers PD, Hecker M, Morschhäuser J.(PubMed)
(363) Review article: the use of biotherapeutic agents in the prevention and treatment of gastrointestinal disease by Lewis SJ1, Freedman AR(PubMed
(364) Review article: yeast as probiotics -- Saccharomyces boulardii by Czerucka D1, Piche T, Rampal P.(PubMed)
(365) Determining the role of a probiotic in the restoration of intestinal microbial balance by molecular and cultural techniques by Shoaib A1, Dachang W1, Xin Y2.(PubMed)
(366) Use of probiotics to correct dysbiosis of normal microbiota following disease or disruptive events: a systematic review by McFarland LV1(PubMed)

(367) Fiber and prebiotics: mechanisms and health benefits by  Slavin J1(PubMed)
(368) Isomer-specific consumption of galactooligosaccharides by bifidobacterial species by  Peacock KS1, Ruhaak LR, Tsui MK, Mills DA, Lebrilla CB(PubMed)
(369) [Vegetable fiber (II). Diseases of the digestive system]. [Article in Spanish] Mur de Frenne L, Tosao Sánchez A, Fleta Zaragozano J.(PubMed)
(370) Fiber and prebiotics: mechanisms and health benefits by Slavin J1.(PubMed)
(371) Beneficial Bowel Bacteria – Our Neglected Friends (The Mcdougal newsletter)
(372) In vitro fermentation of lactulose by human gut bacteria  by Mao B1, Li D, Zhao J, Liu X, Gu Z, Chen YQ, Zhang H, Chen W.(PubMed)
(373) The role of fiber in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: therapeutic recommendations by  Zuckerman MJ1.(PubMed)
(374) Dietary roles of non-starch polysaccharides in human nutrition: a review by Kumar V1, Sinha AK, Makkar HP, de Boeck G, Becker K.(PubMed)
(375) Fermentable non-starch polysaccharides increases the abundance of Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas in ileal microbial community of growing pigs by Ivarsson E1, Roos S2, Liu HY1, Lindberg JE1.(PubMed)
(376) Digestibility of fibre sources and molecular weight distribution of fibre fractions in ileal digesta of growing pigs by Ivarsson E1, Andersson R, Lindberg JE.(PubMed)
(376) Egg proteins as allergens and the effects of the food matrix and processing by Benedé S1, López-Expósito I, Molina E, López-Fandiño R.(PubMed)
(377) Modulation of peanut-induced allergic immune responses by oral lactic acid bacteria-based vaccines in mice by Ren C1, Zhang Q, Wang G, Ai C, Hu M, Liu X, Tian F, Zhao J, Chen Y, Wang M, Zhang H, Chen W.(PubMed)
*378) Effects of aged garlic extract on left ventricular diastolic function and fibrosis in a rat hypertension model by Hara Y1, Noda A, Miyata S, Minoshima M, Sugiura M, Kojima J, Otake M, Furukawa M, Cheng XW, Nagata K, Murohara T.(PubMed)
(379) Effects of garlic oil on interleukin-6 mediated cardiac hypertrophy in hypercholesterol-fed hamsters. Hsieh YL1, Pai P, Ho TJ, Chung LC, Cheng YC, Wu CH, Fan MJ, Day CH, Shen CY, Huang CY.(PubMed)
(380) Anticoagulant activity of select dietary supplements by Stanger MJ1, Thompson LA, Young AJ, Lieberman HR.(PubMed)
(381) Onion and garlic use and human cancer by Galeone C1, Pelucchi C, Levi F, Negri E, Franceschi S, Talamini R, Giacosa A, La Vecchia C.(PubMed)
(382) [Effect of phytoncides on the bacteria isolated from patients with respiratory pathology]. [Article in Russian] by Manastyrskiĭ RIa, Demkevich LI, Sibirnaia RI, Beliakova OI, Iukhimenko IE.(PubMed)
(383) Antioxidant health effects of aged garlic extract by Borek C1.(PubMed)
(384) Aged garlic extract and its constituents inhibit Cu(2+)-induced oxidative modification of low density lipoprotein by Ide N, Nelson AB, Lau BH.(PubMed)
(385) Allicin enhances host pro-inflammatory immune responses and protects against acute murine malaria infection by Feng Y1, Zhu X, Wang Q, Jiang Y, Shang H, Cui L, Cao Y.(PubMed)
(386) Effects of increased wholegrain consumption on immune and inflammatory markers in healthy low habitual wholegrain consumers by Ampatzoglou A1, Williams CL, Atwal KK, Maidens CM, Ross AB, Thielecke F, Jonnalagadda SS, Kennedy OB, Yaqoob P.(PubMed)
(387) Increased whole grain consumption does not affect blood biochemistry, body composition, or gut microbiology in healthy, low-habitual whole grain consumers. Ampatzoglou A1, Atwal KK1, Maidens CM1, Williams CL1, Ross AB2, Thielecke F3, Jonnalagadda SS4, Kennedy OB1, Yaqoob P5.(PubMed)
(388) Colonization and infection of the skin by S. aureus: immune system evasion and the response to cationic antimicrobial peptides by Ryu S1, Song PI2, Seo CH3, Cheong H4, Park Y5.(PubMed)
(389) Obesity, inflammation and the immune system by de Heredia FP1, Gómez-Martínez S, Marcos A.(PubMed)
(390) Ultraviolet Radiation in Wound Care: Sterilization and Stimulation by Gupta A1, Avci P2, Dai T3, Huang YY4, Hamblin MR5.(PubMed)
(391) In vitro and in vivo characterization of ultraviolet light C-irradiated human platelets in a 2 event mouse model of transfusion by Zhi L1, Chi X, Vostal JG.(PubMed)
(392) Ultraviolet-C light for treatment of Candida albicans burn infection in mice by Dai T1, Kharkwal GB, Zhao J, St Denis TG, Wu Q, Xia Y, Huang L, Sharma SK, d'Enfert C, Hamblin MR. (PubMed)
(393) Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy: photodynamic antimicrobial effects of malachite green on Staphylococcus, enterobacteriaceae, and Candida by Junqueira JC1, Ribeiro MA, Rossoni RD, Barbosa JO, Querido SM, Jorge AO.(PubMed)
(394) Position statement. Part one: Immune function and exercise by Walsh NP1, Gleeson M, Shephard RJ, Gleeson M, Woods JA, Bishop NC, Fleshner M, Green C, Pedersen BK, Hoffman-Goetz L, Rogers CJ, Northoff H, Abbasi A, Simon P.(PubMed)
(395) Psychoneuroimmunology. Fact or fiction? by  Sali A1.(PubMed)
(396) Hypoxic macrophages impair autophagy in epithelial cells through Wnt1: relevance in IBD by  Ortiz-Masiá D1, Cosín-Roger J1, Calatayud S1, Hernández C2, Alós R3, Hinojosa J3, Apostolova N4, Alvarez A1, Barrachina MD1.(PubMed)
(397) Chronic stress experience and burnout syndrome have appreciable influence on health-related quality of life in patients with psoriasis by Breuer K1, Göldner FM, Jäger B, Werfel T, Schmid-Ott G.(PubMed)
(398) Higher-risk behavioral practices associated with bacterial vaginosis compared with vaginal candidiasis by Bradshaw CS1, Morton AN, Garland SM, Morris MB, Moss LM, Fairley CK.(PubMed)
(399) Vulvovaginal candidiasis in women who have sex with women by Bailey JV1, Benato R, Owen C, Kavanagh J.(PubMed)
(400) Bacterial vaginosis in lesbians and bisexual women by Bailey JV1, Farquhar C, Owen C.(PubMed)

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