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Wednesday, 11 June 2014

Weight loss in Vitamin D Points of view

 Kyle J. Norton

The prevalence of extreme overweight and obesity has caused concerns of scientific community in the South East Asian population, due unhealthy diet and life style change over 2 decades of economic prosperity. Overweight and obesity have reached epidemic proportions in many Asian countries, affecting even younger age than in Western populations with economic burden in the development of  obesity-related disorders such as diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases(1).  One of six Malaysian are either extreme overweight or obese, according to Datin Paduka Santha Kumari, chairman of the Selangor branch of the Malaysian Diabetes Association and  according to global health observatory, at least 2.8 million people die each year as a result of being overweight or obese, and an estimated 35.8 million (2.3%) of global DALYs are caused by overweight or obesity, worldwide(2).
Epidemiological studies, linking herbal medicine, foods and vitamins in preventing and treating these diseases have been inconclusive(a)
Some researchers suggested that intake of certain herbal medicine may enhance appetite suppression. According to the Georgetown University Medical Center, average daily food intake was decreased only with the herbal formulation, not the phenylpropanolamine (PPA) at the low and high doses, in comparison of the effectiveness among herbal formulation and a commonly available(3). Other researchers insisted that using herbs and supplements to induce weight loss should be taken with care, as a  considerable number of reports have been published on hepatotoxicity associated with herbal products attributed with weight-reducing properties(4)(5)(6)(7). The College of Medicine, The Ohio State University insisted that various dietary, lifestyle, and psychologic factors are involved in the etiology of Prameha, particularly in relation to disturbances in fat and carbohydrate metabolism(8), without effective management, obtaining a workable weight loss plan may be extremely difficult.
Vitamin D is a fat-soluble secosteroids found in small amount in few foods, including salmon, mackerel, sardines and tuna. The vitamin plays an important role in modulation of cellular proliferation, apoptosis induction, tumor growth suppression and promotion in absorption of minerals, including calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphate and zinc.
The serum level of vitamin D
Low levels of micronutrients, including vitamin D are most common among overweight and obese children. According to the study, low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D) levels not only is associated to insulin resistance and cardiovascular diseases risks(9) but also  incidence of obesity(10).
The study of Suspected Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Chinese American Children also supported the link of obesity and metabolic syndrome among Chinese American  childrenand suggested that testing for metabolic disorders and low vitamin D levels would be necessary to identify the early indication of NAFLD in childhood will allow for intervention with lifestyle modification, providing a means to reduce the prevalence of NAFLD in children and adults(11).
DR, Peterson CA,  and Dr. Belenchia AM. told PubMed "There is a well-established inverse relationship between vitamin D status and obesity; however, it is unknown as to whether vitamin D deficiency contributes to, or is a consequence of obesity"(12). Some researchers suggested that correction of poor vitamin D status through dietary supplementation may be an effective addition to the standard treatment of obesity and its associated insulin resistance(13) as vitamin D deficiency is accounted for the secular trends in the prevalence of obesity and for individual differences in its onset and severity(14).

Vitamin D and adiponectin
A suggestion of association of low levels of Vitamin D and adiponectin is associated to obesity instead of vitamin D itself(15).
Adiponectin is a  protein involved in regulating glucose levels as well as fatty acid breakdown.
According to the study by the Università del Piemonte Orientale, in the confirmation Adiponectin tight association with obesity and diabetes mellitus, suggested that multimeric adiponectin may be a key plasma protein that links vitamin D deficiency to pediatric obesity(16).
In support the link between Vitamin D and adiponectin and obesity, the Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University study showed that circulating adiponectin appears to be inversely related to beta cell dysfunction in addition to insulin resistance only in obese women(17). Other in the study insisted that since low serum levels of 1α,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (DHCC) attenuates (monocyte chemotactic protein-1)MCP-1 and adiponectin production in human adipocytes, thereby reducing the expression of both pro- and anti-inflammatory factors may explain the difficulties so far in determining the role of DHCC in insulin sensitivity and obesity in human(18).

Taken altogether, low serum levels of vitamin D and vitamin D deficiency are associated to increase risk of obesity and obese complications through involvement of vary mechanisms. Over doses of vitamin D supplement may cause excessive calcium absorption, calcification, Urinary stones etc. please make sure to follow the guideline of  the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies.


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References
(1) Rising Burden of Obesity in Asia by Ambady Ramachandran and Chamukuttan Snehalatha(Journey of Obesity)
(2) Obesity - Situation and trends(WHO)
(3) Influence of a combination of herbs on appetite suppression and weight loss in rats by Talpur NA1, Echard BW, Manohar V, Preuss HG.(PubMed)
(4) [Hepatotoxicity induced by herbs and medicines used to induce weight loss].[Article in Spanish]by Herrera S1, Bruguera M.(PubMed)
(5) A case report of adult lead toxicity following use of Ayurvedic herbal medication by Breeher L1, Gerr F, Fuortes L.(PubMed)
(6) [Chronic lead intoxication associated with Ayurvedic medication].[Article in Dutch] by Kanen BL1, Perenboom RM.(PubMed)
(7) Potential toxicity of caffeine when used as a dietary supplement for weight loss by Pendleton M1, Brown S, Thomas C, Odle B.(PubMed)
(8) Multinutrient supplement containing ephedra and caffeine causes weight loss and improves metabolic risk factors in obese women: a randomized controlled trial by Hackman RM1, Havel PJ, Schwartz HJ, Rutledge JC, Watnik MR, Noceti EM, Stohs SJ, Stern JS, Keen CL.(PubMed)
(9) The association of vitamin D status with cardiometabolic risk factors, obesity and puberty in children by Aypak C1, Türedi O, Yüce A.(PubMed)
(10) Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-D) in obese adolescents by Garanty-Bogacka B1, Syrenicz M, Goral J, Krupa B, Syrenicz J, Walczak M, Syrenicz A.(PubMed)
(11) Prevalence and Correlates of Suspected Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Chinese American Children by Malespin M1, Sleesman B, Lau A, Wong SS, Cotler SJ.(PubMed)
(12) Vitamin D deficiency & childhood obesity: a tale of two epidemics by Peterson CA, Belenchia AM.(PubMed)
(13) Correcting vitamin D insufficiency improves insulin sensitivity in obese adolescents: a randomized controlled trial by Belenchia AM1, Tosh AK, Hillman LS, Peterson CA.(PubMed)
(14) Vitamin D deficiency is the cause of common obesity by Foss YJ.(PubMed)
(15) Cardiometabolic risk factors related to vitamin d and adiponectin in obese children and adolescents by Kardas F1, Kendirci M, Kurtoglu S.(PubMed)
(16) Pediatric obesity and vitamin D deficiency: a proteomic approach identifies multimeric adiponectin as a key link between these conditions by Walker GE1, Ricotti R2, Roccio M1, Moia S1, Bellone S2, Prodam F2, Bona G2.(PubMed)
(17) Differences in insulin sensitivity, pancreatic beta cell function and circulating adiponectin across glucose tolerance status in Thai obese and non-obese women by Chailurkit LO1, Chanprasertyothin S, Jongjaroenprasert W, Ongphiphadhanakul B.(PubMed)
(18) Differential effects of 1α,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol on MCP-1 and adiponectin production in human white adipocytes by Lorente-Cebrián S1, Eriksson A, Dunlop T, Mejhert N, Dahlman I, Aström G, Sjölin E, Wåhlén K, Carlberg C, Laurencikiene J, Hedén P, Arner P, Rydén M.(PubMed)