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Monday, 2 June 2014

Eggplant as antioxidants

 Kyle J. Norton

Eggplant is a species of S. melongena, belonging to the family Solanaceae and native to India. The plant has been cultivated in southern and eastern Asia since prehistory. It is famous with its deeply purple and the best eggplant can be found from August through October when it is in season.

Nutritional Supplements
1. Carbohydrates
2. Sugars
3. Fiber
4. Fat
5. Protein
6. Thiamine (Vitamin B1)
7. Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)
8. Niacin (Vitamin B3)
9. Pantothenic acid (B5)
10. Vitamin B6
11. Folate (Vitamin B9)
12. Vitamin C
13. Tryptophan
14. Manganese
15. Calcium
16. Copper
17. Iron
18. Magnesium
19. Phosphorus
20. Potassium
21. Zinc
22. Etc.

Chemical constituents
The vegetable chemical compounds containing include sterols (i.e. typical plant sterols, androstane, pregnane and cholestane derivatives, steroidal alkaloids and sapogenins), phytosterols, triterpenes, δ-amyrin, Chlorogenic acid, Nasunin and other Polyphenolic compounds.
Eggplant as antioxidants
Free radicals are atoms, molecules, or ions with unpaired electrons through chemical bonds with other atoms or molecules during a chemical reaction. They may have positive, negative or zero charge. The unpaired electrons cause radicals to be highly chemically reactive in the human body, leading to aging and cancers.
Eggplant fruit contains a rich source of polyphenol compounds endowed with antioxidant properties. According to Università degli Studi di Catania, dry peeled skin combined with 50% aqueous ethanol, irradiated with microwave contained showed a high quantity of flavonoids with good antioxidant activity expressed through its capacity to scavenge superoxide anion and to inhibit lipid peroxidation(1).  Solanum anguivi fruit (SAG)  exhibited potent and concentration dependent free radical-scavenging activity as well as protected against Ca(2+) (110 μmol/L)-induced mitochondrial swelling and maintained the mitochondrial membrane potential, in the evaluation of the antioxidant and radical scavenging activities of Solanum anguivi fruit (SAG) and its possible effect on mitochondrial permeability transition pore(2).
The City University of New York, in the study of the antioxidant-caffeoylquinic acid isomers in fruits of wild eggplant relatives, 3-O-malonyl-5-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid (isomer 1) and 4-O-(E)-caffeoyl-5-O-malonylquinic acid (isomer 2) found that the chemicals exhibited free radical scavenging activity, albeit about 4-fold lower than that of the flavonol quercetin dehydrate(3).


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References
(1) Antioxidant activity and phenolic content of microwave-assisted Solanum melongena extracts by Salerno L, Modica MN, Pittalà V, Romeo G, Siracusa MA, Di Giacomo C, Sorrenti V, Acquaviva R.(PubMed)
(2) African eggplant (Solanum anguivi Lam.) fruit with bioactive polyphenolic compounds exerts in vitro antioxidant properties and inhibits Ca(2+)-induced mitochondrial swelling by Elekofehinti OO1, Kamdem JP, Bolingon AA, Athayde ML, Lopes SR, Waczuk EP, Kade IJ, Adanlawo IG, Rocha JB.(PubMed)
(3) Two new antioxidant malonated caffeoylquinic acid isomers in fruits of wild eggplant relatives by Ma C1, Dastmalchi K, Whitaker BD, Kennelly EJ.(PubMed)