Guaianolides matricarin and achillin, acetoxyachillin and leucodin (= desacetoxymatricarin), corresponding C-11 stereoisomers(a),(Z)-2-β-d-glucopyranosyloxy-4-methoxycinnamic acid (cis-GMCA), chlorogenic acid, (E)-2-β-d-glucopyranosyloxy-4-methoxycinnamic acid (trans-GMCA), quercetagetin-7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, luteolin-7-O-β-d-glucoside, apigenin-7-O-β-d-glucoside, chamaemeloside, apigenin 7-O-(6″-O-acetyl-β-d-glucopyranoside), apigenin] and one polyacetylene (tonghaosu)(b).
Chamomilla recutita flavonoids (chamiloflan) showed to exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects through induced decrease of ceramide levels in the liver of old rats, according to the Kharkov Karazin National University(1). Flavonoids of German chamomile also exhibited the hepatoprotective effect, through affect sphingolipid metabolism and reduced the elevated ceramide level in the aged liver by normalized activities of key enzymes of sphingolipid turnover (neutral SMase and ceramidase) and ceramide contents in the damaged liver and liver cells, and stabilized the hepatocyte membranes.(2)
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(a) Guaianolides and volatile compounds in chamomile tea by Tschiggerl C1, Bucar F.(PubMed)
(b) Quantitative determination of phenolic compounds by UHPLC-UV-MS and use of partial least-square discriminant analysis to differentiate chemo-types of Chamomile/Chrysanthemum flower heads by Avula B1, Wang YH, Wang M, Avonto C, Zhao J, Smillie TJ, Rua D, Khan IA.(PubMed)
(1a) Anxiety disorder(Canadian mental health association)
(1) Effects of Chamomilla recutita flavonoids on age-related liver sphingolipid turnover in rats.