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Sunday, 1 June 2014

Phytochemical Sulforaphane (Isothiocyanates) and Obesity

Kyle J. Norton
Dithiolthiones are phytochemicals in the class of Organosulfides, found abundantly in cruciferous vegetables, garden sorrel, horseradish, etc.

Sulforaphane and Obesity
Obesity is defined as a medical condition of excess body fat has accumulated overtime, while overweight is a condition of excess body weight relatively to the height. According to the Body Mass Index(BMI), a BMI between 25 to 29.9 is considered over weight, while a BMI of over 30 is an indication of obesity. According to the statistic, 68% of American population are either overweight or obese.
Taking foods containing sulforaphane may be effective in managing weight loss for obese patients accompanied with change of lifestyle with more vegetables and fruits into diet. Sulforaphane,  a molecule within the isothiocyanate group, according to Chungbuk National University, showed to prevent high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity in C57BL/6N mice. through inhibiting adipogenesis( the cells differentiation for a vital role in energy homeostasis and process the largest energy reserve  in the body of animals). via down-regulation of PPARγ(regulation of metabolism) and C/EBPα (inflammatory process) and by suppressing lipogenesis( protein as an intermediate stage in metabolism of simple sugars) through activation of the AMPK(in cellular energy homeostasis) pathway(1). Chronic oral administration of sulforaphane, on obesity and insulin resistance induced by a highly palatable (HP) diet in male Wistar rats, at the specific dose was able to accentuate glucose intolerance and may affect GLUT3 expression involed neuronal glucose transport in the cerebral cortex and hypothalamus(2). The  Chonbuk National University also suggested that Sulforaphane suppressed AMPK phosphorylation(cellular energy homeostasis) at Thr-172 in a dose-dependent manner(3).


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References
(1) Sulforaphane attenuates obesity by inhibiting adipogenesis and activating the AMPK pathway in obese mice by Choi KM1, Lee YS1, Kim W1, Kim SJ2, Shin KO1, Yu JY3, Lee MK1, Lee YM1, Hong JT1, Yun YP1, Yoo HS4.(PubMed)(2) Chronic sulforaphane oral treatment accentuates blood glucose impairment and may affect GLUT3 expression in the cerebral cortex and hypothalamus of rats fed with a highly palatable diet by Souza CG1, Riboldi BP, Hansen F, Moreira JD, Souza DG, de Assis AM, Brum LM, Perry ML, Souza DO.(PubMed)
(3) Sulforaphane induced adipolysis via hormone sensitive lipase activation, regulated by AMPK signaling pathway by Lee JH1, Moon MH, Jeong JK, Park YG, Lee YJ, Seol JW, Park SY.(PubMed)