Friday, 6 June 2014

Herbal chamomile and Anxiety disorder

Kylr J. Norton
Chamomile is also known as camomile, common name of many species daisy-like plants in the family Asteraceae. The herb has been used in traditional medicine as antispasmodic and anti-inflammatory constituents and to treat menstrual cramps and sleep disorders, reduce cramping and spastic pain in the bowels, relieve excessive gas and bloating in the intestine, etc.

Guaianolides matricarin and achillin, acetoxyachillin and leucodin (= desacetoxymatricarin), corresponding C-11 stereoisomers(a),(Z)-2-β-d-glucopyranosyloxy-4-methoxycinnamic acid (cis-GMCA), chlorogenic acid, (E)-2-β-d-glucopyranosyloxy-4-methoxycinnamic acid (trans-GMCA), quercetagetin-7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, luteolin-7-O-β-d-glucoside, apigenin-7-O-β-d-glucoside, chamaemeloside, apigenin 7-O-(6″-O-acetyl-β-d-glucopyranoside), apigenin] and one polyacetylene (tonghaosu)(b).

Herbal chamomile and anxiety disorder
According to the Canadian mental health association, Anxiety disordered is a result of a combination of biological, psychological, and other individual factors(1a).
Anxiety is the most commonly reported psychiatric conditions and frequently occur as comorbid disorders.
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled efficacy and tolerability trial of Matricaria recutita (chamomile) extract on generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) showed to effective of modest anxiolytic activity with patient mild to moderate GAD(1). The University of Ottawa study insisted at Matricaria recutita (German chamomile) and Humulus lupulus (hops) showed significant inhibition of GAD activity at doses of 0.11-0.65 mg/mL(2). The study containing 57 participants in the 2009 trial, 19 had anxiety with comorbid depression; 16 had anxiety with a past history of depression; and 22 had anxiety with no current or past depression, chamomile showed a clinically meaningful antidepressant activity to its previously observed anxiolytic activity(3). Apigenin, a component of Matricaria recutita flowers, in in mice study, exerted its anxiolytic and slight sedative effects through the central benzodiazepine receptors(4).
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(a) Guaianolides and volatile compounds in chamomile tea by Tschiggerl C1, Bucar F.(PubMed)
(b) Quantitative determination of phenolic compounds by UHPLC-UV-MS and use of partial least-square discriminant analysis to differentiate chemo-types of Chamomile/Chrysanthemum flower heads by Avula B1, Wang YH, Wang M, Avonto C, Zhao J, Smillie TJ, Rua D, Khan IA.(PubMed)
(1a) Anxiety disorder(Canadian mental health association)
(1) A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of oral Matricaria recutita (chamomile) extract therapy for generalized anxiety disorder by Amsterdam JD1, Li Y, Soeller I, Rockwell K, Mao JJ, Shults J.(PubMed)
(2) Effects of traditionally used anxiolytic botanicals on enzymes of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system by Awad R1, Levac D, Cybulska P, Merali Z, Trudeau VL, Arnason JT.(PubMed)
(3) Chamomile (Matricaria recutita) may provide antidepressant activity in anxious, depressed humans: an exploratory study by Amsterdam JD1, Shults J, Soeller I, Mao JJ, Rockwell K, Newberg AB.(PubMed

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