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Sunday, 6 April 2014

Skin aging in Vitamin B3 points of view

Skin aging is one of most visible process which occurs constantly in our skin organ. According to the Clinical Centre of Nis, certain plant extracts may have the ability to scavenge free radicals, to protect the skin matrix through the inhibition of enzymatic degradation, or to promote collagen synthesis in the skin,  affect skin elasticity and tightness(a). Other suggested that free radicals induced domino effects in production of reactive oxygen species, can react with DNA, proteins, and fatty acids, causing oxidative damage and impairment of antioxidant system, leading  injuries damage regulation pathways of skin,  including wrinkles, roughness, appearance of fine lines, lack of elasticity, and de- or hyperpigmentation marks(b).
Niacin, is also known as vitamin B3, nicotinic acid, an organic compound with the formula
C6H5NO2, found abundantly in chicken, beef, fish, cereal, peanuts and legumes. It is best known for its effects in lowering cholesterol and triglycerides and removing toxic from our body and promoting production of steroid hormones.

Vitamin B3 may be effective to protect against skin-aging through its antioxidant activity(1)(2)(3) such as allowness, wrinkling, red blotchiness and hyperpigmented spots(3a)
In the comparison of the effect on aging skin among  a cosmetic niacinamide/peptide/retinyl propionate product regimen vs. a prescription 0.02% tretinoin product regimen, researchers showed that the composition significantly improved wrinkle appearance after 8 weeks relative to tretinoin, with comparable benefits after 24 weeks with well tolerate adverse effects(4). In facial hyperpigmentation, composition of topical niacinamide and N-acetyl  reduced the appearance of irregular pigmentation including hypermelaninization(5) and niacinamide alone enhanced skin lightening, and hyperpigmented lesions(6) through inhibiting melanosome transfer from melanocytes to keratinocytes(7).  A daily facial lotion application containing vitamins B3 and E and provitamin B5 on the facial skin of Indian women, 30-60 years of age, for 10 weeks, showed a significantly reduced appearance of hyperpigmentation, improved skin tone evenness, appearance of lightening of skin, and positive effects on skin texture, as early as 6 weeks(8). In Global gene expression skin aging process, compounds niacinamide and hexamidine, may effect the skin hydration, barrier, matrix, pigmentation through theirs' antioxidant capacity(9). According to Kinki University School of Medicine, application of composition containing 4%  niacinamide in 30 healthy Japanese females who had wrinkles in the eye areas showed to reduced wrinkles through a marked and moderate improvement in 64% of the subjects with a significant difference as compared with the control site(10) and niacinamide alone exhibited a significant reductions in fine lines and wrinkles, hyperpigmented spots, red blotchiness, and skin sallowness (yellowing)(11)(12).

Taken altogether, strong evidence suggested that vitamin B3 used alone or combination with other antioxidants may be beneficial in reduced the early onset skin aging and skin aging progression.  Overdoses of vitamin B3 may induce symptoms of severe skin flushing combined with dizziness, rapid heartbeat, itching, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, etc. As always,  all articles written by Kyle J. Norton are for information & education only, please consult your Doctor & Related field specialist before applying.



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References
(a) Skin ageing: natural weapons and strategies by Binic I1, Lazarevic V, Ljubenovic M, Mojsa J, Sokolovic D.(PubMed)
(b) Phytoconstituents as photoprotective novel cosmetic formulations by Saraf S1, Kaur CD.(PubMed)
(1) [Anti-aging creams. What really helps?].[Article in German] by Kerscher M1, Buntrock H.(PubMed)
(2) Practical application of cellular bioenergetics to the care of aged skin by Osborne R1, Carver RS, Mullins LA, Finlay DR(PubMed)
(3) Application of genomics to breakthroughs in the cosmetic treatment of skin ageing and discoloration by Osborne R1, Hakozaki T, Laughlin T, Finlay DR.(PubMed)
(3a) Evaluation of anti-wrinkle effects of a novel cosmetic containing niacinamide by Kawada A1, Konishi N, Oiso N, Kawara S, Date A.([PubMed)
(4) A randomized, controlled comparative study of the wrinkle reduction benefits of a cosmetic niacinamide/peptide/retinyl propionate product regimen vs. a prescription 0.02% tretinoin product regimen by Fu JJ1, Hillebrand GG, Raleigh P, Li J, Marmor MJ, Bertucci V, Grimes PE, Mandy SH, Perez MI, Weinkle SH, Kaczvinsky JR.(PubMed)
(5) Reduction in the appearance of facial hyperpigmentation after use of moisturizers with a combination of topical niacinamide and N-acetyl glucosamine: results of a randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled trial by Kimball AB1, Kaczvinsky JR, Li J, Robinson LR, Matts PJ, Berge CA, Miyamoto K, Bissett DL(PubMed)
(6) Effective inhibition of melanosome transfer to keratinocytes by lectins and niacinamide is reversible by Greatens A1, Hakozaki T, Koshoffer A, Epstein H, Schwemberger S, Babcock G, Bissett D, Takiwaki H, Arase S, Wickett RR, Boissy RE(PubMed)
(7) The effect of niacinamide on reducing cutaneous pigmentation and suppression of melanosome transfer by Hakozaki T1, Minwalla L, Zhuang J, Chhoa M, Matsubara A, Miyamoto K, Greatens A, Hillebrand GG, Bissett DL, Boissy RE(PubMed)
(8) The effects of a daily facial lotion containing vitamins B3 and E and provitamin B5 on the facial skin of Indian women: a randomized, double-blind trial by Jerajani HR1, Mizoguchi H, Li J, Whittenbarger DJ, Marmor MJ.(PubMed)
(9) Understanding metabolic pathways for skin anti-aging by Osborne R1, Mullins LA, Jarrold BB.(PubMed).
(10) Evaluation of anti-wrinkle effects of a novel cosmetic containing niacinamide by Kawada A1, Konishi N, Oiso N, Kawara S, Date A.(PubMed)
(11) Niacinamide: A B vitamin that improves aging facial skin appearance by Bissett DL1, Oblong JE, Berge CA(PubMed)
(12) Topical niacinamide reduces yellowing, wrinkling, red blotchiness, and hyperpigmented spots in aging facial skin by Bissett DL1, Miyamoto K, Sun P, Li J, Berge CA.(PubMed)