Saturday, 5 April 2014

Food Therapy - Celery and atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer progression

Celery is a species of Apium graveolens, belonging to the family Apiaceae. It is cultivated all around the globe as a vegetable. Celery can grow to 1/2 m tall with stalks (leaf on the top) arranging in a conical shape joined at a common base.

1. Carbohydrates
2. Sugars
3. Fiber
4. Fat
5. Protein
6. Water
7. Vitamin A
8. Vitamin B1
9. Vitamin B2
10. Vitamin B6
11. Vitamin C
12. Vitamin K
13. Folate
14. Calcium
15. Manganese
16. Magnesium
17. Phosphorus
18. Potassium
19. Iron
20. Sodium
21. Etc.

1. 3-n-butyl-phthalide
2. Acetylenics,
3. Coumarins 
4. Phenolic acids
5. Limonene, coumarin,
6. Phthalides
7. Apigenin
and falcariondiol (1), (9Z) 1,9-heptadecadiene-4,6-diyne-3,8,11-triol (2), oplopandiol (3), bergapten (4), 5,8-dimethoxy psoralen (5), isofraxidin (6), eugenic acid (7), trans-ferulic acid (8), trans-cinnamic acid (9), p-hydroxyphenylethanol ferulate (10), caffeoylquinic acid (11), 5-p-trans-coumaroylquinic acid (12), sedanolide (13), lunularin (14), lunularic acid (15), 2-(3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenol)-propane-1,3-diol (16), D-allitol (17), beta-sitosterol (18), benzolic acid (19), succinic acid (20), according to Shenyang Pharmaceutical University(a).
Celery and atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer progression
Stomach cancer/gastric cancer is defined as condition of abnormal growth of the mucus-producing cells of the inside lining of the stomach. Adenocarcinoma is the most common type of stomach cancer.
atrophic gastritis is a process of chronic inflammation of the stomach mucosa.

Apigenin, one of the most common flavonoids, found abundantly in celery, in a joint study from institution in Taiwan, including the Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, showed effectively decreased atrophic gastritis (atrophic gastritis group) and dysplasia/gastric cancer (gastric cancer group) rates in Mongolian gerbils induced by Helicobacter pylori colonization and Helicobacter pylori(b). Celery seed extract (CSE), in a dose- and time-dependent manner, exhibited anti-proliferation effect on human gastric cancer BGC-823 cells, through Cell cycle arrest and apoptosis related proteins, such as cyclin A, CDK2, down regulated bcl-2 and up -regulated Bax pathways(c).
Celery seed oil, in benzo[a]pyrene- (BP) induced forestomach cancer in mice, the chemical constituents. 3-n-butyl phthalide and sedanolide showed to reduce tumor incidence from 68% to 30% and 11%,  and  67% and 83% in tumor multiplicity, respectively(d). In fact, according to the State University of New York,  dietary intake of celery, substantial reductions in risk gastric cancer is associated to its phytochemical such as carotene(e).

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(a) [Chemical constituents of fresh celery].[Article in Chinese] by Zhou K1, Wu B, Zhuang Y, Ding L, Liu Z, Qiu F(PubMed)
(b) Apigenin has anti-atrophic gastritis and anti-gastric cancer progression effects in Helicobacter pylori-infected Mongolian gerbils by Kuo CH1, Weng BC2, Wu CC3, Yang SF4, Wu DC5, Wang YC(PubMed)
(c) Molecular mechanisms of celery seed extract induced apoptosis via s phase cell cycle arrest in the BGC-823 human stomach cancer cell line by Gao LL1, Feng L, Yao ST, Jiao P, Qin SC, Zhang W, Zhang YB, Li FR(PubMed)
(d) Chemoprevention of benzo[a]pyrene-induced forestomach cancer in mice by natural phthalides from celery seed oil by Zheng GQ1, Kenney PM, Zhang J, Lam LK(PubMed)
(e) Diet in the epidemiology of gastric cancer by Graham S1, Haughey B, Marshall J, Brasure J, Zielezny M, Freudenheim J, West D, Nolan J, Wilkinson G.(PubMed)

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