Sunday, 6 April 2014

Food therapy - Celery and liver cancer

Celery is a species of Apium graveolens, belonging to the family Apiaceae. It is cultivated all around the globe as a vegetable. Celery can grow to 1/2 m tall with stalks (leaf on the top) arranging in a conical shape joined at a common base.

1. Carbohydrates
2. Sugars
3. Fiber
4. Fat
5. Protein
6. Water
7. Vitamin A
8. Vitamin B1
9. Vitamin B2
10. Vitamin B6
11. Vitamin C
12. Vitamin K
13. Folate
14. Calcium
15. Manganese
16. Magnesium
17. Phosphorus
18. Potassium
19. Iron
20. Sodium
21. Etc.

1. 3-n-butyl-phthalide
2. Acetylenics,
3. Coumarins 
4. Phenolic acids
5. Limonene, coumarin,
6. Phthalides
7. Apigenin
and falcariondiol (1), (9Z) 1,9-heptadecadiene-4,6-diyne-3,8,11-triol (2), oplopandiol (3), bergapten (4), 5,8-dimethoxy psoralen (5), isofraxidin (6), eugenic acid (7), trans-ferulic acid (8), trans-cinnamic acid (9), p-hydroxyphenylethanol ferulate (10), caffeoylquinic acid (11), 5-p-trans-coumaroylquinic acid (12), sedanolide (13), lunularin (14), lunularic acid (15), 2-(3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenol)-propane-1,3-diol (16), D-allitol (17), beta-sitosterol (18), benzolic acid (19), succinic acid (20), according to Shenyang Pharmaceutical University(a).

Liver cancer is defined as a condition of abnormal cell growth in the liver. Commonly, proliferation starts at bile ducts, blood vessels or connective tissue of the liver.
According to the study at Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, dietary intake high amounts of celery was associated with reduced liver cancer risk(b). Methanolic extract of celery seeds, in Wistar rats study, showed to protect against diethylnitrosoamine (DEN)+2-acetylaminofluorine (AAF)+partial hepatectomy (PH) induced hepatocarcinogenesis in dose dependent manner, through modulation of cell proliferation, metabolism and altered hepatic foci development(c). Perillyl alcohol(d), its essential oils(e) and chemical compound phthalides(f) found in celery seed may be potent in treating liver tumors, with Perillyl alcohol also acting as a chemopreventative agent for other cancers, such as colon, skin, and lung cancer.

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(a) [Chemical constituents of fresh celery].[Article in Chinese] by Zhou K1, Wu B, Zhuang Y, Ding L, Liu Z, Qiu F(PubMed)
(b) Vegetable-based dietary pattern and liver cancer risk: results from the Shanghai women's and men's health studies by Zhang W1, Xiang YB, Li HL, Yang G, Cai H, Ji BT, Gao YT, Zheng W, Shu XO(PubMed)
(c) Inhibitory effect of celery seeds extract on chemically induced hepatocarcinogenesis: modulation of cell proliferation, metabolism and altered hepatic foci development by Sultana S1, Ahmed S, Jahangir T, Sharma S(PubMed)
(d) Perillyl alcohol: applications in oncology by Belanger JT.(PubMed)
(e) Influence of certain essential oils on carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes and acid-soluble sulfhydryls in mouse liver by Banerjee S1, Sharma R, Kale RK, Rao AR.(PubMed)
(f) Chemoprevention of benzo[a]pyrene-induced forestomach cancer in mice by natural phthalides from celery seed oil by Zheng GQ1, Kenney PM, Zhang J, Lam LK.(PubMed)

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