Saturday, 26 April 2014

Cervical cancer in Vitamin B2 Points of View

 Kyle J. Norton

 According to the American Cancer Society's, in 2014, 12,360 new cases of invasive cervical cancer will be diagnosed with the death of  4,020 patients. The risk of cervical cancer is higher in Hispanic women followed by African-Americans, Asians and Pacific Islanders, and whites(a).

Vitamin B2 also known as  Riboflavin, is a water-soluble, yellow-orange organic compound found abundantly in milk, meat, eggs, nuts, enriched flour, green vegetables, etc. The vitamin is essential for normal cellular growth and function and best known for converting energy from protein, fat, and carbohydrates during metabolism and its antioxidant effects in oxidation-reduction reactions.

Epidemiological studies, linking vitamin B2 in reduced risk and treatment of cervical cancer have been inclusive(a)(b)(c)(d). Suggestion of serum homocysteine was strongly and significantly predictive of invasive cervical cancer risk. In the study of cervical cancer risk factors through at-home interview and blood drawn at least 6 months after completion of cancer treatment from 51% and 68% of interviewed cases and controls, suggested that elevated serum homocysteine increased risk of cervical cancer are associated to the inadequacy of folate, B12 and/or B6, or genetic polymorphisms affecting one-carbon metabolism(1)(2). Other researchers indicated that deficiencies in dietary B-vitamin input and genetic polymorphisms for the enzymes in one-carbon metabolism are associated with a host of human health concerns,including cancer(3). Vitamin B2 deficiency may lead to with cervical cancer and precancerous lesions. Researchers at the the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, found that the inverse association  between tissue riboflavin levels and C20orf54 mRNA and protein expression in cervical squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC)(4), serum and tissues of vitamin B2 may be linked to the risk of the cervical cancer development. In the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene, the 1University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham showed that women who have the MTHFR polymorphism and low riboflavin status, were less likely to develop cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2 or 3, than women who was without the polymorphism and high riboflavin status(5). In the analysis of the cancer site, MTHFR C677T polymorphism interacted with folate and riboflavin in modulating cancer risk in a manner, depending to the types of cancer but  the effect on cervical cancer risk is not clear(6).

Taking altogether, Vitamin B2 deficiency and defection of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene may be associated to increased risk of cervical cancer, but further studies are necessary to validate its claims. At the mean time, please make sure you follow the guideline of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies as  over doses for a prolong period may cause symptoms of skin rashes, hypersensitivity, high blood pressure etc.,

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(a) Diet and premalignant lesions of the cervix: evidence of a protective role for folate, riboflavin, thiamin, and vitamin B12 by Hernandez BY1, McDuffie K, Wilkens LR, Kamemoto L, Goodman MT.(PubMed)
(b) A case control study of nutritional factors and cervical dysplasia by Liu T1, Soong SJ, Wilson NP, Craig CB, Cole P, Macaluso M, Butterworth CE Jr.(PubMed)
(c) [Chemoprevention of cervical cancer--intervention study of cervical precancerous lesions by retinamide II and riboflavin].[Article in Chinese] byChen RD.(PubMed)
(d) Epidemiologic studies of vitamins and cancer of the lung, esophagus, and cervix by Ziegler RG.(PubMed)
(1) Elevated serum homocysteine levels and increased risk of invasive cervical cancer in US women.

Weinstein SJ1, Ziegler RG, Selhub J, Fears TR, Strickler HD, Brinton LA, Hamman RF, Levine RS, Mallin K, Stolley PD.(PubMed)
(2) Nutritional and genetic inefficiencies in one-carbon metabolism and cervical cancer risk by Ziegler RG1, Weinstein SJ, Fears TR.(PubMed
(3) Mathematical Models of Cell Metabolism(Fred Hutchinson cancer research center)
(4) Association of the plasma and tissue riboflavin levels with C20orf54 expression in cervical lesions and its relationship to HPV16 infection by Aili A1, Hasim A, Kelimu A, Guo X, Mamtimin B, Abudula A, Upur H.(PubMed)
(5) Protective association of MTHFR polymorphism on cervical intraepithelial neoplasia is modified by riboflavin status by Piyathilake CJ1, Azrad M, Macaluso M, Johanning GL, Cornwell PE, Partridge EE, Heimburger DC.(PubMed)
(6) Interaction among folate, riboflavin, genotype, and cancer, with reference to colorectal and cervical cancer. by Powers HJ.(PubMed)  


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