Wednesday, 30 April 2014

Cervical cancer in Vitamin B12 Points of View

 According to the American Cancer Society's, in 2014, 12,360 new cases of invasive cervical cancer will be diagnosed with the death of  4,020 patients. The risk of cervical cancer is higher in Hispanic women followed by African-Americans, Asians and Pacific Islanders, and whites(1).
Vitamin B12, also known as cobalamin, a water-soluble vitamin, found abundantly in a variety of foods, such as fish, shellfish, meat, eggs, dairy products, etc. plays an important role in regulating the functions of nervous system and formation of blood.

Epidemiological studies focusing vitamin B12 in reduced risk of cervical  cancer have produced conflict results(a)(b)(c)(d). Mahidol University, showed that lower levels of serum of vitamin B12 may be associated to the risk of cervical cancer, in the vitamin B12 statuses of Thai women with high- and low-grade cervical dysplasia study(1). Other researchers suggested that there may be a link between serum concentrations of folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine and the risk of cervical cancer due to vitamins role in role in the synthesis and repair of DNA. In a a community-based cohort of women who donated blood in 1974 for a serum bank in Washington County, Maryland, 39 cases of cervical cancer diagnosed between 1975 and mid-1990 were included in the study (13 cases of invasive cervical cancer and 26 cases of carcinoma in situ). vitamin B12 was found to mimic those for folate and lower homocysteine, a marker of low B vitamin concentrations was associated to increased risk of the disease(1). In cervical cancer progression, folate showed to have an influence on B12 levels but not those of MTHFR polymorphisms, serum homocysteine(3). Improving folate and vitamin B12 status may have a beneficial impact on the prevention of CC, because of their role in interventions of HR-HPV infections(4)(5). The National Cancer Center, Goyang, Korea, showed a positive effect of vitamins intake in protection of  on cervical neoplasms in case-control studies due to antioxidant activities(6). Other researchers suggested the lower levels of vitamin B12 and folate may be due to abnormal Intestinal malabsorptionof that can lead to deficiency and reduced length of survival(7). On the other hand, the University of Hawai study indicated that thiamin, riboflavin, folate, and vitamin B12 may play a protective role in cervical carcinogenesis(8). Unfortunately, the Arizona Cancer Center study do not support the role of folate, vitamin B12, or homocysteine in HPV persistence or cervical dysplasia(9), the leading cause of cervical cancer.

Taken altogether, intake of vitamin B12 may be effective in reduced risk and treatment of cervical cancer when used conjunction with folate. Over doses of the vitamin may induce symptoms of toxicity, including headache, giddiness and abnormal heart functioning, etc., please make sure to follow the guideline of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies.

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(1) Cerical cancer (Amerrican cancer society)
(a) Diet and premalignant lesions of the cervix: evidence of a protective role for folate, riboflavin, thiamin, and vitamin B12 by Hernandez BY1, McDuffie K, Wilkens LR, Kamemoto L, Goodman MT.(PubMed)
(b) A case control study of nutritional factors and cervical dysplasia by Liu T1, Soong SJ, Wilson NP, Craig CB, Cole P, Macaluso M, Butterworth CE Jr.(PubMed)
(c) [Chemoprevention of cervical cancer--intervention study of cervical precancerous lesions by retinamide II and riboflavin].[Article in Chinese] byChen RD.(PubMed)
(d) Epidemiologic studies of vitamins and cancer of the lung, esophagus, and cervix by Ziegler RG.(PubMed)
(1) Vitamin B12 status of Thai women with neoplasia of the cervix uteri by Kwanbunjan K1, Saengkar P, Cheeramakara C, Tangjitgamol S, Chitcharoenrung K.(PubMed)

(2) The risk of cervical cancer in relation to serum concentrations of folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine by Alberg AJ1, Selhub J, Shah KV, Viscidi RP, Comstock GW, Helzlsouer KJ.(PubMed)
(3) A case-control nutrigenomic study on the synergistic activity of folate and vitamin B12 in cervical cancer progression by Ragasudha PN1, Thulaseedharan JV, Wesley R, Jayaprakash PG, Lalitha P, Pillai MR.(PubMed)
(4) Indian women with higher serum concentrations of folate and vitamin B12 are significantly less likely to be infected with carcinogenic or high-risk (HR) types of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) by Piyathilake CJ1, Badiga S, Paul P, Vijayaraghavan K, Vedantham H, Sudula M, Sowjanya P, Ramakrishna G, Shah KV, Partridge EE, Gravitt PE.(PubMed)
(5) Lower risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in women with high plasma folate and sufficient vitamin B12 in the post-folic acid fortification era by Piyathilake CJ1, Macaluso M, Alvarez RD, Bell WC, Heimburger DC, Partridge EE.(PubMed)

(6) Vitamin or antioxidant intake (or serum level) and risk of cervical neoplasm: a meta-analysis by Myung SK1, Ju W, Kim SC, Kim H; Korean Meta-analysis (KORMA) Study Group.(PubMed)
(7) Intestinal malabsorption in long-term survivors of cervical cancer treated with radiotherapy by Vistad I1, Kristensen GB, Fosså SD, Dahl AA, Mørkrid L.(PubMed)
(8) Diet and premalignant lesions of the cervix: evidence of a protective role for folate, riboflavin, thiamin, and vitamin B12 by Hernandez BY1, McDuffie K, Wilkens LR, Kamemoto L, Goodman MT.(PubMed)

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