Wednesday, 23 April 2014

Cervical cancer in Vitamin D Points of View

 Kyle J. Norton

According to the American Cancer Society's, in 2014, 12,360 new cases of invasive cervical cancer will be diagnosed with the death of  4,020 patients. The risk of cervical cancer is higher in Hispanic women followed by African-Americans, Asians and Pacific Islanders, and whites(a).

Vitamin D is a fat-soluble secosteroids found in small amount in few foods, including salmon, mackerel, sardines and tuna. The vitamin plays an important role in modulation of cellular proliferation, apoptosis induction, tumor growth suppression and promotion in absorption of minerals, including calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphate and zinc.

The Medical Center Bonn Friedensplatz, study showed a preferential risk factor of cancer in patient with low levels of concentration of serum vitamin D, including cervix carcinoma(1). 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), a biologically active metabolite of vitamin D, showed to regulate the growth of various cell types. The expression of VDR, 25-OHase, 1alpha-OHase, and 24-OHase in breast carcinomas (BC), ovarian cancer (OC), cervix carcinomas (CC) might have the ability to synthesize 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 within the cells. Locally in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of the tissues(2). In the study of the same, 25(OH)D3-1alpha-hydroxylase have shown to express in normal cervical tissue, in cervical cancer and in HeLa cells. This local synthesization of 1alpha, 25(OH)2D3 may be significant importance in the regulation of growth control in normal and malignant cervical tissue(3).
In human epithelioid carcinoma cells of cervix HeLa S3K, vitamins D3-induced alkaline phosphatase activity in malignant cells(4).
In a selected 405 incident cervical neoplasias (333 invasive carcinomas and 72 cervical intraepithelial neoplasias grade III (CIN3)) and 2025 age-matched non-cancer controls in Japanese women showed an inverse correction  between dietary calcium and vitamin D intake and cervical neoplasia risk(5).

Taken together, decreased serum of vitamin D might be associated to reduced risk of  cervical cancer. Receptor of vitamin D and its active metabolite of vitamin D may be used to regulation of the cervical cancer tissues. Over doses of vitamin D supplement may cause excessive calcium absorption, calcification, Urinary stones etc. please make sure to follow the guideline of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies.

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(1) Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration in German cancer patients by Reinhold U1, Schmitz B, Kurbacher C, Nagel W, Schmidt M, Malaisse WJ.(PubMed)
(2) Analysis of the vitamin D system in cervical carcinomas, breast cancer and ovarian cancer by Friedrich M1, Rafi L, Mitschele T, Tilgen W, Schmidt W, Reichrath J.(PubMed)
(3) Analysis of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1alpha-hydroxylase in cervical tissue by Friedrich M1, Villena-Heinsen C, Axt-Fliedner R, Meyberg R, Tilgen W, Schmidt W, Reichrath J.(PubMed)
(4) Effect of vitamin D3 and 1,25(OH)2D3 on growth of neoplastically derived cell lines and their alkaline phosphatase activity by Kholodova YuD1, Bondar OP, Melnykovych G.(PubMed)

(5) Association between dietary calcium and vitamin D intake and cervical carcinogenesis among Japanese women by Hosono S1, Matsuo K, Kajiyama H, Hirose K, Suzuki T, Kawase T, Kidokoro K, Nakanishi T, Hamajima N, Kikkawa F, Tajima K, Tanaka H.(PubMed)

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