Tuesday, 1 April 2014

Skin aging in Foods points of view

Kyle J. Norton

Skin aging is one of most visible ageing process which occurs constantly in our skin organ. According to the Clinical Centre of Nis, certain plant extracts may have the ability to scavenge free radicals, to protect the skin matrix through the inhibition of enzymatic degradation, or to promote collagen synthesis in the skin,  affect skin elasticity and tightness(a). Other suggested that free radicals induced domino effects in production of reactive oxygen species, can react with DNA, proteins, and fatty acids, causing oxidative damage and impairment of antioxidant system, leading  injuries damage regulation pathways of skin,  including wrinkles, roughness, appearance of fine lines, lack of elasticity, and de- or hyperpigmentation marks(b).
The degradation of the epidermal and dermal layers of the extracellular matrix (ECM), the non-cellular component present within all tissues and organs, such as UV Exposure, decline of lysosomal/endosomal cathepsin K, S and V activity(c) as well as environment factors such as irregular dryness, dark/light pigmentation, sallowness, severe atrophy, telangiectases, premalignant lesions, laxity, leathery appearance and deep wrinkling, etc.,  cause modification of the surface of skin and the physical properties of that lead to skin aging. Certain foods have been found to be effective in protect the skin against natural aging, including green tea and garlic.
1. Garlic
Garlic (Allium sativum) is a species in the onion genus, belonging to family Amaryllidaceae, native to central Asia. It has been used popularly in traditional and Chinese medicine in treating common cold and flu to the Plague, blood pressure cholesterol levels, natural antibiotic, etc.
In wrinkle formation, caffeic acid and S-allyl cysteine found in garlic significantly inhibited the degradation of type І procollagen and the expressions of MMPs in vivo and attenuated the histological collagen fiber disorder and oxidative stress in vivo, through decreased oxidative stress and inflammation by modulating the activities of NF-κB and AP-1, and exhibited an indirect anti-oxidant effect by suppressing cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expressions levels and down-regulated transcriptional factors(1). Its garlic's antioxidant properties  may either prevent or delay chronic diseases associated with aging(2). According to Aarhus University, garlic not only protected skin cell from undergo aging process but also inhibited the abnormal growth of skin cells, through its on long-term growth characteristics, morphology and macromolecular synthesis of human fibroblasts(3).

2. Ginger
Ginger (Zingiber officinale) or ginger root is the genus Zingiber, belonging to the family Zingiberaceae, native to Tamil. It has been used in traditional and Chinese medicine to treat dyspepsia, gastroparesis, constipation, edema, difficult urination, colic, etc.
In formation of wrinkles induced by UV exposure in rat or hairless mouse skin, extract of Zingiber officinale, significantly inhibited the fibroblast-derived elastase at a suberythemal dose, in prevention of the decrease in skin elasticity in both types of animal skin(4).

3. Black bean
Small roughly ovoid legumes with glossy black shells, genus Phaseolus, belongs to the family Fabaceae and can bought in most grocery stores all around the year in dried and canned forms. It is believed that black bean was first domesticated growth in South America.
According to Jiangnan University, chemical constituents in black bean sprouts may potentiate as additives in anti-aging and whitening skin cosmetic products due to its antioxidant properties(5).
On UVB-induced apoptotic skin cell death, anthocyanins a major chemical compound found in black bean, not only reduced UVB-induced reactive oxygen species levels but also inhibited UVB-induced apoptotic cell death through the prevention of caspase-3 pathway activation and reduction of proapoptotic Bax protein levels(6). Other study also found the effectiveness of anthocyanins in modulation of oxidative disorders including UVB-induced inflammation(7).

4. Avocado
Avocados are a commercially valuable fruit and are cultivated in tropical climates throughout the world, it is a green-skinned, pear-shaped fruit that ripens after harvesting and native to the Caribbean, Mexico, South America and Central America, belonging to the flowering plant family Lauraceae.
Daily intake of one-half a Hass avocado (68 g), may support cardiovascular health, weight management and healthy aging(8). Study on the of ingestion of an unsaponifiable avocado and soya extract (P.I.A.S.) indicated a very probable presence of phytosterols and a richer proportion of cholesterol, precursors particularly methostenol in the skin of rats fed(9).

5. Passion fruit
Passionflower is also known as passion vines,, in the genus Passiflora , belonging to the family Passifloraceae, native to southeastern parts of the America. The herb has been used in traditional medicine in treating nervous tension including anxiety, insomnia, seizures, sleep problems and hysteria.
Passion fruit seed extract, piceatannol, and scirpusin B effected the keratinocyte by upregulated the glutathione (GSH) levels in keratinocytes in a dose-dependent manner, and suppressed the UVB-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and enhanced matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 activity(10). A flavone chrysin from Passiflora caerulea Linn. and a benzoflavone moiety (BZF) recently isolated from Passiflora incarnata Linn in rat skin study, showed a great potential for clinical and therapeutic applications against the physiological and biochemical effects of aging(11).

6. Mango
Mango tree  is a flower plant of genus of Mangifera, belonging to the family Anacardiaceae, native to the subtropical and tropical southeast Asia. The
Beside exerting its antioxidant with anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities, mango extract also showed to inhibit wrinkle formation and damage to collagen fiber against UVB-induced skin aging in hairless mice(12). Polyamine, a major chemical constituent of mango and other plants may be potential target for reduced aging skin as the level of spermidine was maximal in 10-week-old mice and markedly reduced in 26-week-old mice(13).

7. Apple
Apple is the pomaceous fruit of the apple tree, a species of the rose family Rosaceae. It is one of the most widely cultivated tree fruits. The tree is originated in Central Asia.
Apple whole fruit and its chemical compound showed to protect cells from aging through  influence of aging and oxidative stress(14). The study from Taipei Medical University, in the study of its chemical compounds suggested the use of extract of M. doumeri var. formosana (containing phenolic compounds) in anti-aging or cosmetic products(15) through exhibition of anti-oxidant and tyrosinase reducing activities(16).

9. Sea buckthorn fruit
Sea buckthorn is a shrub in the genus Hippophae, belonging to the family Elaeagnaceae, native to in
the wide regions of the Atlantic coasts of Europe right across to northwestern Mongolia and also
northwestern China.
sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) fruit blend (SFB) containing sea buckthorn fruit extract, 
exhibited a protective and therapeutic drug candidate against skin aging by regulating the moisture
content, MMP expression levels and SOD activity in UV radiation-induced skin aging in hairless mice,
according to the study by the Pusan National University(17).

10. Grape
Grape is a woody vines of the genus Vitis, belong to the family Vitaceae, native to southern Turkey.
Trans-resveratrol, a polyphenol extracted from grape, showed a remarkable improvement in decreased aging signs(18). In facial skin morphology and functionality, combination of grape seed extract and soy phospholipids showed to have the potential in induced signal transduction pathways in facial hypodermis, resulting in anti-aging effects throughout all skin compartments, including dermal and epidermal layers(19). Clinically and biometrically, composition of lycopene, acerola extract, grape seed extract and Biomarine ComplexT showed to  increase parameters of cutaneous hydration, reduction of pH, ultrasound density and a histological increment of collagen and elastic fibers (both on the face and arm), through a reduction of seborrhea (only on the face)(20).

11. Pomegranate
Pomegranates is a fruit-bearing small tree, genus Punica, belonging to family Lythraceae, native to Iran but has been cultivated in Asian since ancient time.
Pomegranate are among many plants ma be beneficial in protect against human skin aging(21), In the
Study at the Kyung Hee University Global Campus, Punica granatum (pomegranate) extract showed a positive effect in protecting skin against UVB-induced damage in cultured human skin fibroblasts, through increased expression of procollagen type I and decreased expression of MMP-1(22). In an immortal human keratinocyte line (Hala cell line), pomegranate polyphenol extract POMx protected HaCaT cells against UVB-induced oxidative stress and markers of photoaging(23). Ellagic acid, a polyphenol compound presented in berries and pomegranate, prevented collagen destruction and inflammatory responses caused by UV-B, according to the Hallym University(24).

12. Almond skin
Almond consists of an outer hull and a hard shell with the seed (nut) inside is native to the Middle East. It is most widely cultivated seed in the world for it economic and health benefit.
The study of α-Tocopherol (AT) and polyphenols (AP) in almonds  ahainst UV exposure causes of oxidative stress, inflammation, erythema, and skin cancer, showed the positive effect of AT and AP, applied to medium or topically, in photoprotection against UVA(25)(26).

13. Cacao bean and cola nut
Caocao a small tropical American evergreen tree, of the genus Theobroma, belonging to the family Malvaceae. Its seed has been used for making chocolate and cocoa mass, cocoa powder.
Cola tree is a genus Cola, belonging the family Malvaceae, native to the tropical rainforests of Africa.
Topical application of plant extracts and their xanthine derivatives showed to suppressed wrinkle formation, dermal connective alteration, and collagen accumulation(27). The 1Natura Innovation and Product Technology Ltda, Cajamar study indicated the antioxidant effects of cacao in protection against oxidative causes of skin cell damage(28).

14. Olive oils
Olive is belongs to the the family Oleaceae, native to the coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean Basin and south end of the Caspian Sea. Its fruit, is also called the olive and the source of olive oil.
Unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) found abundantly in olive oil may be effective in alleviation of skin problems such as dryness and those related to the aging process. The Università degli Studi di Torino study showed the use of combination of hemp seed and olive oils may inhibit the problem through spraying in some gel-emulsions(29). According to the Procter & Gamble Company, olive-derived fatty acid ethoxylates, not only showed to restore antioxidant enzymes in skin keratinocytes and fibroblasts, but also reduced melanin production by an adrenergic receptor mechanism in melanocytes(30).

15. Date palm kernel extract
Date palm tree is a genus of Phoenix, belonging to the family Arecaceae, native from lands around Iraq. According to Vincience Research Center Date palm kernel
extract, in the study of 10 Ten healthy women volunteers, between the ages of 46 and 58 years, applied
the cream formula with 5% date palm kernel or placebo on the eye area twice a day for 5 weeks,
application of date palm kernel reduced the total surface of wrinkles by 27.6% (p = 0.038), the depth of
wrinkles by 3.52% (p = 0.0231). These results are statistically significant and were clinically confirmed
where visual improvement was seen in 60% of the volunteers treated(31).

16. Lemon oil
Lemon is a species of Citrus Aurantifolia, belongs to the family Rutaceae. It has around shape are with green to yellow in color and 3–6 cm in diameter and native to Southeast Asia.
According to University of Catania, Italy, a natural compound isolated from lemon oil (Lem1) not only showed to significantly increase the antioxidative potential of skin biosurface in healthy volunteers but lexhibited a strong antioxidant effects in inhibition of free radical-mediated reactions, as evaluated in vitro and in vivo(32) and may provide a  better understanding of the endogenous antioxidant potential of skin and the real validity of a natural antioxidant biotechnology in the antiaging management of the skin(33).

Taken altogether, the list of foods have been found effectively in protection of photoagingnd alleviation of skin symptoms due to aging, as well as through influence of the expression of procollagen type I and MMP-1. As always, all articles written by Kyle J. Norton are for information & education only, please consult your Doctor & Related field specialist before applying.

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(1) Anti-wrinkle and anti-inflammatory effects of active garlic components and the inhibition of MMPs via NF-κB signaling by Kim SR1, Jung YR, An HJ, Kim DH, Jang EJ, Choi YJ, Moon KM, Park MH, Park CH, Chung KW, Bae HR, Choi YW, Kim ND, Chung HY(PubMed)
(2) Garlic and aging: new insights into an old remedy by Rahman K(PubMed)
(3) Testing garlic for possible anti-ageing effects on long-term growth characteristics, morphology and macromolecular synthesis of human fibroblasts in culture by Svendsen L1, Rattan SI, Clark BF.(PubMed)
(4) Inhibition of ultraviolet-B-induced wrinkle formation by an elastase-inhibiting herbal extract: implication for the mechanism underlying elastase-associated wrinkles by Tsukahara K1, Nakagawa H, Moriwaki S, Takema Y, Fujimura T, Imokawa G(PubMed)
(5) Study of active ingredients in black soybean sprouts and their safety in cosmetic use by Lai J1, Xin C, Zhao Y, Feng B, He C, Dong Y, Fang Y, Wei S.(PubMed)
(6) Protective effect of anthocyanins from black soybean seed coats on UVB-induced apoptotic cell death in vitro and in vivo by Tsoyi K1, Park HB, Kim YM, Chung JI, Shin SC, Shim HJ, Lee WS, Seo HG, Lee JH, Chang KC, Kim HJ.(PubMed)
(7) Anthocyanins from black soybean seed coats inhibit UVB-induced inflammatory cylooxygenase-2 gene expression and PGE2 production through regulation of the nuclear factor-kappaB and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway by Tsoyi K1, Park HB, Kim YM, Chung JI, Shin SC, Lee WS, Seo HG, Lee JH, Chang KC, Kim HJ.(PubMed)
(8) Hass avocado composition and potential health effects by Dreher ML1, Davenport AJ.(PubMed)
(9) [Influence of the daily ingestion of a total unsaponifiable extract from avocado and soy bean oils on cholesterol metabolism in the rat].[Article in French] by Chevallier F, Lutton C, Sulpice JC, D'Hollander F.(PubMed)
(10) The protective effects of piceatannol from passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) seeds in UVB-irradiated keratinocytes by Maruki-Uchida H1, Kurita I, Sugiyama K, Sai M, Maeda K, Ito T.(PubMed)
(11) Beneficial effects of chrysin and benzoflavone on virility in 2-year-old male rats by Dhawan K1, Kumar S, Sharma A.(PubMed)
(12) Protective effect of mango (Mangifera indica L.) against UVB-induced skin aging in hairless mice by Song JH1, Bae EY, Choi G, Hyun JW, Lee MY, Lee HW, Chae S.(PubMed)
(13) Decrease in polyamines with aging and their ingestion from food and drink by Nishimura K1, Shiina R, Kashiwagi K, Igarashi K.(PubMed)
(14) Apple can act as anti-aging on yeast cells by Palermo V1, Mattivi F, Silvestri R, La Regina G, Falcone C, Mazzoni C.(PubMed)
(15) Phenolic constituents of Malus doumeri var. formosana in the field of skin care. by Leu SJ1, Lin YP, Lin RD, Wen CL, Cheng KT, Hsu FL, Lee MH(PubMed)
(16) Constituents from the Formosan apple reduce tyrosinase activity in human epidermal melanocytes by Lin YP1, Hsu FL, Chen CS, Chern JW, Lee MH(PubMed)
(17) UV radiation-induced skin aging in hairless mice is effectively prevented by oral intake of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) fruit blend for 6 weeks through MMP suppression and increase of SOD activity by Hwang IS1, Kim JE, Choi SI, Lee HR, Lee YJ, Jang MJ, Son HJ, Lee HS, Oh CH, Kim BH, Lee SH, Hwang DY.(PubMed)
(18) Enhanced antioxidant effect of trans-resveratrol: potential of binary systems with polyethylene glycol and cyclodextrin by Moyano-Mendez JR1, Fabbrocini G, De Stefano D, Mazzella C, Mayol L, Scognamiglio I, Carnuccio R, Ayala F, La Rotonda MI, De Rosa G(PubMed)
(19) Hypodermal delivery of cosmetic actives for improved facial skin morphology and functionality by Bojanowski K.(PubMed)
(20) Clinical, biometric and ultrasound assessment of the effects of daily use of a nutraceutical composed of lycopene, acerola extract, grape seed extract and Biomarine Complex in photoaged human skin by Costa A1, Lindmark L, Arruda LH, Assumpção EC, Ota FS, Pereira Mde O, Langen SS(PubMed)
(21) Innovations in natural ingredients and their use in skin care by Fowler JF Jr1, Woolery-Lloyd H, Waldorf H, Saini R(PubMed)
(22) Extract of Punica granatum inhibits skin photoaging induced by UVB irradiation by Park HM1, Moon E, Kim AJ, Kim MH, Lee S, Lee JB, Park YK, Jung HS, Kim YB, Kim SY(PubMed)
(23) Inhibition of UVB-mediated oxidative stress and markers of photoaging in immortalized HaCaT keratinocytes by pomegranate polyphenol extract POMx by Zaid MA1, Afaq F, Syed DN, Dreher M, Mukhtar H.(PubMed)
(24) Dietary compound ellagic acid alleviates skin wrinkle and inflammation induced by UV-B irradiation by Bae JY1, Choi JS, Kang SW, Lee YJ, Park J, Kang YH(PubMed)
(25) A pilot study of the photoprotective effect of almond phytochemicals in a 3D human skin equivalent by Evans-Johnson JA1, Garlick JA, Johnson EJ, Wang XD, Oliver Chen CY.(PubMed)
(26) Effect of pre-treatment of almond oil on ultraviolet B-induced cutaneous photoaging in mice by Sultana Y1, Kohli K, Athar M, Khar RK, Aqil M.(PubMed)
(27) Topical application of plant extracts containing xanthine derivatives can prevent UV-induced wrinkle formation in hairless mice by Mitani H1, Ryu A, Suzuki T, Yamashita M, Arakane K, Koide(PubMed)
(28) A new potent natural antioxidant mixture provides global protection against oxidative skin cell damage by Jorge AT1, Arroteia KF, Lago JC, de Sá-Rocha VM, Gesztesi J, Moreira PL(PubMed)
(29) Hemp-seed and olive oils: their stability against oxidation and use in O/W emulsions.

Sapino S1, Carlotti ME, Peira E, Gallarate M(PubMed)
(30) Application of genomics to breakthroughs in the cosmetic treatment of skin ageing and discoloration by Osborne R1, Hakozaki T, Laughlin T, Finlay DR.(PubMed)
(31) Date palm kernel extract exhibits antiaging properties and significantly reduces skin wrinkles by Bauza E1, Dal Farra C, Berghi A, Oberto G, Peyronel D, Domloge N(PubMed)
(32) Oxidative stress and antioxidants at skin biosurface: a novel antioxidant from lemon oil capable of inhibiting oxidative damage to the skin by Calabrese V1, Scapagnini G, Randazzo SD, Randazzo G, Catalano C, Geraci G, Morganti P(PubMed)
(33) Biochemical studies on a novel antioxidant from lemon oil and its biotechnological application in cosmetic dermatology by Calabrese V1, Randazzo SD, Catalano C, Rizza V.(PubMed)

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