Phytochemicals, the natural chemical constituent, protect the plants against diseases and form their outer's color. Phytochemicals may be next potential sources of new medicine for treatment of diseases with little or no side effects.
Piperine is a phytochemical alkaloid in the class of organosulfur compound, found abundantly in white and black pepper, long pepper, etc.
Piperine showed to potentiate the protective effects of curcumin in significantly improved behavioral and biochemical alterations, restored mitochondrial enzyme complex activities and attenuated increased acetylcholinesterase and serum corticosterone levels(7).
Study of combination of bioactive food ingredients, including piperine in Forty-one patients and 45 patients in control group, showed a significantly greater decrease in insulin resistance, with leptin, ghrelin, C-reactive protein decreased and resting energy expenditure increased significantly in the supplemented group compared to the placebo(10).
Administration of piperine isolated from the fruits of Piper nigrum crude extract diabestes induced in albino mice using alloxan, showed the crude extract exhibit its anti-diabetic effect inducing a significant blood glucose lowering at dose of 20 mg/kg on day 14(13).
In picryl chloride (PC)-induced ear swelling in PC sensitized mice, PN-ext exhibited its histamine release inhibitory activity, in vitro on compound 48/80-induced histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells(16).
In the study of the same subject, administration of PLE and piperinesignificantly (p<0.01) inhibited venom induced lethality, haemorrhage, necrosis, defibrinogenation and inflammatory paw edema in mice in a dose dependent manner, reduced venom induced mast cell degranulation in rats(19).
Study of bacterial infections causes of frequent respiratory infections, including bacterial infections provoke asthma attack, showed a positive effect of Piper Longum L. Extract (20% Piperine) in exhibition of a moderate activity antibacterial activity against selected strains, such as Haemophilus influenzae , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Streptococcus pyrogene and Staphylococcus aureus(20).
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(1) Piperine as an inhibitor of the MdeA efflux pump of Staphylococcus aureus by Mirza ZM, Kumar A, Kalia NP, Zargar A, Khan IA.(PubMed)
(2) Piperine, a phytochemical potentiator of ciprofloxacin against Staphylococcus aureus by Khan IA, Mirza ZM, Kumar A, Verma V, Qazi GN.(PubMed)
(4) Piperine suppresses tumor growth and metastasis in vitro and in vivo in a 4T1 murine breast cancer model by Lai LH, Fu QH, Liu Y, Jiang K, Guo QM, Chen QY, Yan B, Wang QQ, Shen JG.(PubMed)
(6) Biological activities of curcumin and its analogues (Congeners) made by man and Mother Nature by Anand P, Thomas SG, Kunnumakkara AB, Sundaram C, Harikumar KB, Sung B, Tharakan ST, Misra K, Priyadarsini IK, Rajasekharan KN, Aggarwal BB.(PubMed)
(8) Suppression of neuroinflammatory and apoptotic signaling cascade by curcumin alone and in combination with piperine in rat model of olfactory bulbectomy induced depression by Rinwa P, Kumar A, Garg S.(PubMed)
(9) Protective effect of curcumin and its combination with piperine(bioavailability enhancer) against haloperidol-associated neurotoxicity: cellular and neurochemical evidence by Bishnoi M, Chopra K, Rongzhu L, Kulkarni SK.(PubMed)
(11) Piperine reverses high fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance in mice by Choi S, Choi Y, Choi Y, Kim S, Jang J, Park T.(PubMed)
(12) Piperine, an active principle from Piper nigrum, modulates hormonal and apo lipoprotein profiles in hyperlipidemic rats by Vijayakumar RS, Nalini N.(PubMed)
(14) Effect of piperine on antihyperglycemic activity and pharmacokinetic profile of nateglinide by Sama V, Nadipelli M, Yenumula P, Bommineni MR, Mullangi R.(PubMed)
(15) Effects of piperine on antioxidant pathways in tissues from normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by Rauscher FM, Sanders RA, Watkins JB 3rd.(PubMed)
(17) Piperine inhibits eosinophil infiltration and airway hyperresponsiveness by suppressing T cell activity and Th2 cytokine production in the ovalbumin-induced asthma model by Kim SH, Lee YC.
(19) Anti-snake venom activities of ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum L. (Piperaceae) against Russell's viper venom: characterization of piperine as active principle by Shenoy PA, Nipate SS, Sonpetkar JM, Salvi NC, Waghmare AB, Chaudhari PD.(PubMed)
(21) Invitro antioxidant activity of selected antiasthmatic herbal constituents by Nilani P, Kasthuribai N, Duraisamy B, Dhamodaran P, Ravichandran S, Ilango K, Suresh B.(PubMed)