Thursday, 1 March 2018

The Magic of Camellia Sinensis Leaves: Green Tea in Expression of Anti Influenza Activity

Kyle J. Norton 

Green tea, the Camellia sinensis leaves may have a therapeutic and positive effect in reduced infectious risk by influenza, some scientists suggested.

Influenza, is also known s "the flu", is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus
Green tea, is a precious drink processed numbers of health benefit and known to almost everyone in Asia and Western world.

In the investigated the green tea effect in reduced risk of influenza viral overspreading in general population, researchers at the Yonsei University conducted a study to evaluate catechin derivatives with different alkyl chain length and aromatic ring substitutions at the 3-hydroxyl group synthesized from epigallocatechin (EGC) and (+)-catechin (C) activity against influenza virus.

According to the experiment, application of catechin derivatives, carrying moderate chain length (7-9 carbons) exerted a pronounced effect in inhibited over expression of the virus in compared to those with aromatic rings.

Interestingly, injection of the 5'-hydroxyl group did not significantly contribute to antiviral activity against trihydroxy benzyl moiety.

However, administration of both derivatives demonstrated an inhibitory effect for all six influenza subtypes tested including three major types of currently circulating human influenza viruses (A/H1N1, A/H3N2 and B type), H2N2 and H9N2 avian influenza virus, through strongly inhibited adsorption of the viruses on red blood cell (RBC).

In vivo, the drivatives also expressed an impressive activity in restricted the growth of avian influenza virus with minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) of 5-10 microM far exceeding the dose of conventional medicine oseltamivir or M2 proton channel inhibitor amantadine with the same purposes.

Further analysis suggested that the derivatives isolated from actechin inhibited effect were attributed to the mediation and interaction with hemagglutinin (HA)/viral membrane at the initial stage of infection.

Dr. Song JM, the lead author, after taking account of all assessment said, "The broad spectrum activity against various subtypes of influenza viruses may complement the limitations of current antivirals and contribute for managing potentially emerging influenza pandemic".

Importantly, in the comparison of the theaflavins fraction (TF80%, with a purity of 80%) and three theaflavin (TF) derivatives potent inhibitory effects against influenza virus in vitro, scientists at the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College indicated that application displayed a significant inhibitory effects on the HA of three different subtypes of influenza virus strains [A/PR/8/34(H1N1), A/Sydney/5/97(H3N2) and B/Jiangsu/10/2003] with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) values ranging from 9.27 to 36.55 μg/mL, probably though expression and interaction on HA as above differentiation.

Additionally, TF derivatives inhibited the over expression of viral particle infectivity consistently and corelatively with the inhibitory effect on HA.

According to the qPCR and  nuclear localization of the influenza virus vRNP assays, all applications exerted anti infectivity by interrupting the viral  replication and also decreased the production of inflammatory cytokine IL-6 in induction of serious tissue injury and apoptosis.

The above evaluation were supported by the Yonsei University study of the polyphenolic compound catechins ((-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG) and (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC)) from green tea in inhibited influenza virus replication in cell culture and for potentially direct virucidal effect.

According to the results, among all compound selected in the assessment, EGCG and ECG were found to be potent inhibitors of influenza virus replication in MDCK( in a suitable transfection host  for influenza research) cell culture, including A/H1N1, A/H3N2 and B virus, observed in all influenza virus subtypes tested. with 50% effective inhibition concentration (EC50) of EGCG, ECG, and EGC for influenza A virus at doses of 22-28, 22-40 and 309-318 microM.

The effective compounds EGCG and ECG also displayed an exhibited hemagglutination inhibition activity, similar to those in above studies.

Moreover, in compared to the EGCG and ECG anti influenza virus efficacy, researchers surprisingly found that at high concentration, EGCG + ECG also suppressed viral RNA synthesis in MDCK cells whereas EGC failed to show similar effect and EGCG + ECG inhibited the neuraminidase activity more effectively than the ECG.

These results reaffirmed the expression of green tea biocative polyphenols antiviral effect of catechins on influenza virus is mediated not only by specific interaction with HA, but  also alter the physical properties of viral membrane, Dr. Song JM, the lead author of the study suggested.

Taken together, green tea with abundant phytochemical polyphenols may be considered as a functional food for reduced risk, progression and treatment of infleunza infection.

Reprint of this article is welcome with author name and link to the article sources intact

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrients, All right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Biological evaluation of anti-influenza viral activity of semi-synthetic catechin derivatives by Song JM1, Park KD, Lee KH, Byun YH, Park JH, Kim SH, Kim JH, Seong BL.(PubMed)
(2) In vitro anti-influenza virus and anti-inflammatory activities of theaflavin derivatives by Zu M1, Yang F, Zhou W, Liu A, Du G, Zheng L.(PubMed)
(3) Antiviral effect of catechins in green tea on influenza virus by Song JM1, Lee KH, Seong BL.(PubMed)

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