Anise is a flowering plant ofthe species of Pimpinella anisum, genus Pimpinella, belongings to the family Apiaceae native to to Egypt and the Mediterranean region, used in traditional herbal medicine as fragrance in soaps, oils, and mouth fresheners and stomachic, anti-septic, anti-spasmodic, ....
Anethole, D-pinene, I-phellandrene, Alpha-terpineol, Safrol, Methyl chavicol, Resin, Shikimic acid, etc.
In the study of Anise estrogenic activity at doses levels of 50 mg, 70 mg and 80 mg/kg po. in rats, researchers found that application of Anise at all dose exerted a strong estrogenic effect without affecting the levels of progestational, anti-progestational, androgenic or anti-androgenic activities and inducing any side effects even at the doses of more than 3000 mg/kg with LD50, an indication of 50% percent of a population of animals killed usually within a certain time due to some application in dose dependent manner.
Also, in the investigation of Anise estrogenic effect, researchers found that application of Anise displayed estrogenic activity through increased milk secretion, promote menstruation, facilitate birth, alleviate the symptoms of the male climacteric, and increase libido.
However, even with lesser amount in fennel essential oil, polymers of anethole, the derivative of dianethole and photoanethole are considered as actual pharmacological values in testing for drug in treatment of extrogenic deficiency related diseases, including menstrual disorder, libido, menopause symptoms, male climacteric,.....
The above differentiation was supported by the evaluation of estrogenic activity of essential oils of eleven Pimpinella species and the compounds isolated from these species, conducted by the Anadolu University.
Interestingly, Fruits of P. isaurica and P. peucedanifolia were estrogenic in spite of the absence or trace amount of anethole.
In other words, anethole, a major bioactive compound may not be solely responsible for contributing towards estrogenic activity and essential oil isolated from different parts of the plant and species expressed a varied in estrogenic potencies in compared to 17 beta-estradiol.
In herbal Anise the fruit oils were most estrogenic followed by the aerial parts without fruits and the root oils and their EC50 values varied from 45 micrograms/mL to 650 micrograms/mL.
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Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.
(1) Fennel and anise as estrogenic agents BY MichaelAlbert-Puleo(Science Direct)
(2) Estrogenic activity of isolated compounds and essential oils of Pimpinella species from Turkey, evaluated using a recombinant yeast screen by Tabanca N1, Khan SI, Bedir E, Annavarapu S, Willett K, Khan IA, Kirimer N, Baser KH.(PubMed)
(3) Anti-fertility activity and hormonal profile of trans-anethole in rats by Dhar SK1(PubMed)