Sunday, 4 March 2018

The Magic of Camellia Sinensis Leaves: Green Tea In Ameliorated Risk, Progression and Treatment of Pulmonary Fibrosis

Kyle J. Norton 

Green tea may have a therapeutic and positive effect in reduced risk and progression and treatment of pulmonary fibrosis, some scientists suggested.

Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a chronic and progressive condition of lung disease characterized by reduced numbers and increased stiffness of air sac in the lungs (alveoli), affecting the lung breathing function to provide enough oxygen into the bloodstream

Green tea, is a precious drink processed numbers of health benefit known to almost everyone in Asia and Western world.

In the evaluation of green tea extract efficacy in pulmonary fibrosis caused by direct injury due to over expression of oxygen free radicals and inflammatory cells and fibroblasts in mice model with injection of Paraquat (0.3 mg/kg) into the right lungs of rats, after 2 weeks, then assigned the tested mice to group treated by green tea extract or non treatment groups and control group treated by saline, after assessment,  researchers found that
* Non treatment group exerted a significant expression of pulmonary fibrosis, observed by contents of light microscopic morphometry and hydroxyproline caused by over capacity of ROS observed by the lipid perioxidation assay.

Further examination also discovered that non treatment mice group displayed a pronoucely increased
levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), an indication of over expression of free radicals in induction of oxidative stress caused by ROS chain reaction and endothelin (ET)-1, and prepro-ET-1 mRNA expression, a strong indication of the endothelium signals of vasoconstriction and local cellular growth and survival of air sac cells in the lungs (alveoli).

*In compared to non treatment and saline groups, green tea administered 1% GTE mixed with feed group showed significant decreases in pulmonary fibrosis, along with decreases in MDA, ET-1, and prepro-ET-1 mRNA expression

The result suggested that green tea inhibitorily oxidative activity in reduced expression of pulmonary fibrosis through its antioxidants and promoted production of antioxidants from the host to restore the ratio of antioxidant and free radicals and decreased the facilitation of proinflammatory cytokines in precipitated damage and apoptosis of lung cells and fibroblasts. 

Dr. Kim HR, thelead author, after taking into account of other con founders said, "GTE inhibits paraquat-induced pulmonary fibrosis by suppression of oxidative stress and ET-1 expression".

Additional study of the neutrophils in the site of infection in initiation of host defense and inflammation in precipitation of pulmonary fibrosis development by the Medical School of Padova, revealed that application of green tea (-)epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) strongly inhibits neutrophil elastase by repressing the reactive oxygen species activity in induction of apoptosis of activated neutrophils.

In vitro, administration of EGCG dramatically inhibited chemokine expression, a secondary pro-inflammatory mediators induced by primary pro-inflammatory in activated neutrophil chemotaxis in migration of neutrophils of immune system to  the site of infection.

Importantly, injection of green tea EGCG also demonstrated a significant effect by blocking neutrophil-mediated angiogenesis in vivo  by initiated growth of new blood vessels to stimulate and fuel the ongoing lung cell damage and death of the cell in the alveoli.

These results constituted a substantial and protective effect in enhanced resolution in a pulmonary inflammation model and significantly reduced consequent fibrosis.

Dr. Donà M, at the end of the analysis said, "These results provide molecular and cellular insights into the claimed beneficial properties of green tea and indicate that EGCG is a potent anti-inflammatory compound with therapeutic potential".

The above differentiation of green tea effect in protect the lung against the development of pulmonary fibrosis caused by free radical chain reaction and over production of pro inflammatory factors were supported by the study of "the protective effect of green tea extract (GTE), curcumin, against N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) on experimentally induced pulmonary fibrosis" by Cairo University.

According to the study, application of curcumin (200 mg/kg b.w), GTE (150 mg/kg b.w), and NAC (490 mg/kg b.w) orally for 14 days with concomitant administration of cyclophosphamide (CP),  revealed a strong activity in inhibited oxidative stress and lung myelo-peroxidase activity observed in animals of the CP group.

Treatment group also decreased the levels of N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase, leukotriene C₄, and protein in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in demonstration of over reaction of immune response in induction of inflammation through inhibited production of proinflammatory cytokines (growth factor-β, interleukin -1β, and histamine) in initiated lung injure and induced apoptosis of lung cells.

Taken together, green tea and its bioactive polyphenols may be considered as a function food for treatment of pulmonary fibrosis through reducing oxidative stress and inflammatory effect in elevated risk and progression of the disease.

Reprint of this article is welcome with author name and link to the article sources intact

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrients, All right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Neutrophil restraint by green tea: inhibition of inflammation, associated angiogenesis, and pulmonary fibrosis by Donà M1, Dell'Aica I, Calabrese F, Benelli R, Morini M, Albini A, Garbisa S.(PubMed)
(2) Green tea extract inhibits paraquat-induced pulmonary fibrosis by suppression of oxidative stress and endothelin-l expression by Kim HR1, Park BK, Oh YM, Lee YS, Lee DS, Kim HK, Kim JY, Shim TS, Lee SD(PubMed)
(3) Modulatory effects of curcumin and green tea extract against experimentally induced pulmonary fibrosis: a comparison with N-acetyl cysteine by Hamdy MA1, El-Maraghy SA, Kortam MA(PubMed)

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