The Health Benefits According to Diseases
In the study to evaluate the effect of curcumin (10 and 20mg/kg), an active constituent of Curcuma longa was evaluated for its antianxiety-like activity in mice subjected to immobilization-induced restraint stress for 6h, indicated that the combination of aminoguanidine and curcuminsignificantly decreased the plasma nitrite levels as compared to curcuminand aminoguanidine per se in stressed mice. Curcumin and aminoguanidine did not produce any significant change in brain GABA contents of the animals. Diazepam (2mg/kg) produced significant anxiolytic-like effect only in unstressed mice, but could not exert significant anxiolysis in stressed mice. However, diazepam significantly increased GABA contents in both unstressed and stressed mice as compared to respective control groups. These findings suggest the possible involvement of only inducible NOS and not neuronal NOS in antianxiety-like effect of curcumin(1).
2. Alzheimer's disease
Turmeric, principal curcuminoid of the popular Indian spice, a rhizomatousherbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family, Zingiberaceae, native to tropical South Asia, according to "Effects of different drying methods on the antioxidant properties of leaves and tea of ginger species" by E.W.C. Chan, Y.Y. Lim, S.K. Wong, K.K. Lim, S.P. Tan, F.S. Lianto and M.Y. Yong, posted in Science Direct. It has been used in traditional herbal medicine as an anti-inflammatory agent and to treat gastrointestinal symptoms associated with irritable bowel syndrome and other digestive disorders.
Curcumin is a phytochemical found abundant in the plant. In acidic solutions (pH <7.4) it turns yellow, whereas in basic (pH > 8.6) solutions it turns bright red.
In other study of `NSAID and antioxidant prevention of Alzheimer's disease: lessons from in vitro and animal models.`by Cole GM, Morihara T, Lim GP, Yang F, Begum A, Frautschy SA. (Source from Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, Veterans Administration Medical Center, North Hills, CA 91343, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org) posted in US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, reseachers found that the unconventional NSAID/antioxidant curcumin was effective, lowering oxidative damage, cognitive deficits, synaptic marker loss, and amyloid deposition. Curcumin proved to be immunomodulatory, simultaneously inhibiting cytokine and microglial activation indices related to neurotoxicity, but increasing an index of phagocytosis. Curcumin directly targeted Abeta and was also effective in other models, warranting further preclinical and clinical exploration(2).
3. Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)
Turmeric (Curcuma longa L., Zingiberaceae) rhizomes contain two classes of secondary metabolites, curcuminoids and the less well-studied essential oils. Dr. Funk JL and research team at the University of Arizona, indicated that Crude or refined TEO extracts dramatically inhibited joint swelling (90-100% inhibition) in female rats with streptococcal cell wall (SCW)-induced arthritis when extracts were administered via intraperitoneal injection to maximize uniform delivery. However, this anti-arthritic effect was accompanied by significant morbidity and mortality. Oral administration of a 20-fold higher dose TEO was nontoxic, but only mildly joint-protective (20% inhibition). These results do not support the isolated use of TEO for arthritis treatment but, instead, identify potential safety concerns in vertebrates exposed to TEO(3).
4. Polymalagia Arthritis(PMR)
Turmeric, principal curcuminoid of the popular Indian spice, a rhizomatousherbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family, Zingiberaceae, native to tropical South Asia.
a. Anti inflammatory effects
In a systematic review of the literature was to summarize the literature on the safety and anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin, found that curcumin has been demonstrated to be safe in six human trials and has demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity. It may exert its anti-inflammatory activity by inhibition of a number of different molecules that play a role in inflammation, according to "Safety and anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin: a component of tumeric (Curcuma longa)" by Chainani-Wu N (4)
In the research of a literature search (PubMed) of almost 1500 papers dealing with curcumin, most from recent years, with ll available abstracts were read and pproximately 300 full papers were reviewed, found that curcumin, a component of turmeric, has been shown to be non-toxic, to have antioxidant activity, and to inhibit such mediators of inflammation as NFkappaB, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), lipooxygenase (LOX), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Significant preventive and/or curative effects have been observed in experimental animal models of a number of diseases, including arteriosclerosis, cancer, diabetes, respiratory, hepatic, pancreatic, intestinal and gastric diseases, neurodegenerative and eye diseases, "Curcumin, an atoxic antioxidant and natural NFkappaB, cyclooxygenase-2, lipooxygenase, and inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor: a shield against acute and chronic diseases" by Bengmark S.(4a)
In the study to evaluate the Berberine of a plant alkaloid with a long history of medicinal use in both Ayurvedic and Chinese medicine, presented abundantly in turmeric, found that erberine extracts and decoctions have demonstrated significant antimicrobial activity against a variety of organisms including bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoans, helminths, and chlamydia. Currently, the predominant clinical uses of berberine include bacterial diarrhea, intestinal parasite infections, and ocular trachoma infections(5)
6. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
Cadmium is a toxic metal present in the environment and its inhalation can lead to pulmonary disease such as lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. These lung diseases are characterized by chronicinflammation. In the study of Curcumin regulates airway epithelial cell cytokine responses to the pollutant cadmium, researchers found that the natural antioxidant curcumin could prevent both cadmium-induced IL-6 and IL-8 secretion by human airway epithelial cells. In conclusion, curcumin could be used to prevent airway inflammation due to cadmium inhalation(6).
In the evaluation of the effect of feeding 0.5% curcumin diet or 1% cholesterol diet in albino rats rendered diabetic with streptozotocin injection, indicated that curcumin feeding improves the metabolic status in diabetic conditions, despite no effect on hyperglycemic status or the body weights. The mechanism by which curcumin improves this situation is probably by virtue of its hypocholesterolemic influence, antioxidant nature and free radical scavenging property(7).
Curcumin is a major active compound of Curcuma longa. In the study to investigate the effect of curcumin on endogenous glutamate release in nerve terminals of rat prefrontal cortex and the underlying mechanisms, suggested that curcumin inhibits evoked glutamate release from rat prefrontocortical synaptosomes by the suppression of presynaptic Ca(v)2.2 and Ca(v)2.1 channels. The inhibitory effect of curcumin on 4-AP-evoked glutamate release was completely abolished by the clinically effective antidepressant fluoxetine. This suggests that curcumin and fluoxetine use a common intracellular mechanism to inhibit glutamate release from rat prefrontal cortex nerve terminals(8).
9. Crohn's disease
The up regulation of gut mucosal cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and oxidative stress have been related to inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). In the study to investigate an immune-mediated model of colitis. TNF-α injected intraperitonally to mice induced a dose-dependent recruitment of neutrophils into abdominal mesentery, showed that AG and Cur treatments significantly attenuated the hallmarks of oxidative stress, neutrophils influx and ROS-related cellular and histological damages, in TNF-α-treated mice. Taken together, our results provide insights into the role of phagocytes-derived oxidants in TNF-α-colitis in mice. Cur and AG, by inhibiting neutrophils priming and iNOsynthase could be effective against oxidative bowel damages induced in IBD by imbalanced gut immune response(9).
Uterine leiomyomas are the most common gynaecological benign tumour and greatly affect reproductive health and wellbeing. Curcumin, a well-known component of turmeric, has been reported to prevent various diseases such as cancer, diabetes and obesity. Researchers at Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, suggested that curcuminsignificantly inhibited ELT-3 cell proliferation. PPARγ was expressed in ELT-3 cells and curcumin acted as a PPARγ ligand. This inhibitory effect of curcumin was attenuated by the treatment of cells with PPARγ antagonist(10).
11. Flu (influenza)
In the studt to investigate selected polyphenols for their antiviral activity against influenza A and B viruses. Among the polyphenols, isoquercetin inhibited the replication of both influenza A and B viruses at the lowest effective concentration. In a double treatment of isoquercetin and amantadine, synergistic effects were observed on the reduction of viral replication in vitro. The serial passages of virus in the presence of isoquercetin did not lead to the emergence of resistant virus, and the addition of isoquercetin to amantadine or oseltamivir treatment suppressed the emergence of amantadine- or oseltamivir-resistant virus. In a mouse model of influenza virus infection, isoquercetin administered intraperitoneally to mice inoculated with human influenza A virus significantly decreased the virus titers and pathological changes in the lung. Our results suggest that isoquercetin may have the potential to be developed as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of influenza virus infection and for the suppression of resistance in combination therapy with existing drugs.(11).
Curcumin has not only shown anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, antifungal, antibacterial and anticancer activities but also has had the ability to inhibit several factors like nuclear factor-kappaB, which modulates several pro-inflammatory and profibrotic cytokines as well as its anti-oxidant properties, provide a rational molecular basis to use it in hepatic disorders. Curcumin attenuates liver injury induced by ethanol, thioacetamide, iron overdose, cholestasis and acute, subchronic and chronic carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) intoxication; moreover, it reverses CCl(4) cirrhosis to some extent(12).
13. Genital herpes
In the study to investigate Curcumin, a phenolic compound from the curry spice turmeric in exhibiting a wide range of activities in eukaryotic cells, including antiviral effect, found that curcumin affects VP16-mediated recruitment of RNA polymerase II to IE gene promoters by a mechanism independent of p300/CBP histone acetyltransferase activity(13).
14. Irritable bowel syndrome
In the study to assess the effects of turmeric (Curcuma longa) extract on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptomology in otherwise healthy adults, indicated that IBS prevalence decreased significantly in both groups between screening and baseline (41% and 57%), with a further significant drop of 53% and 60% between baseline and after treatment, in the one- and two-tablet groups respectively (p < 0.001). A post-study analysis revealed abdominal pain/discomfort score reduced significantly by 22% and 25% in the one- and two-tablet group respectively, the difference tending toward significance (p = 0.071). There were significant improvements in all bar one of the IBSQOL scales of between 5% and 36% in both groups, approximately two thirds of all subjects reported an improvement in symptoms after treatment, and there was a favorable shift in self-reported bowel pattern(14).
15. Liver disease
In the stdu8y to evaluate the protective role of soy against CCl(4)-induced liver damage in rats as four experimental groups were treated for 8 weeks and included the control group,showed that Supplementation with soysucceeded to restore the elevation of liver enzymes activities and improved serum biochemical parameters. Moreover, soy supplementation improved the antioxidant enzymes, decreased lipid peroxidation, and improved the histological picture of the liver tissue. It could be concluded that soy-protein-enriched isoflavones may be a promising agent against liver diseases(15).
16. Lupus Cerebritis
c. Anti inflammatory effects
In a systematic review of the literature was to summarize the literature on the safety and anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin, found that curcumin has been demonstrated to be safe in six human trials and has demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity. It may exert its anti-inflammatory activity by inhibition of a number of different molecules that play a role in inflammation, according to "Safety and anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin: a component of tumeric (Curcuma longa)" by Chainani-Wu N.
In the research of a literature search (PubMed) of almost 1500 papers dealing with curcumin, most from recent years, with ll available abstracts were read and pproximately 300 full papers were reviewed, found that curcumin, a component of turmeric, has been shown to be non-toxic, to have antioxidant activity, and to inhibit such mediators of inflammation as NFkappaB, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), lipooxygenase (LOX), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Significant preventive and/or curative effects have been observed in experimental animal models of a number of diseases, including arteriosclerosis, cancer, diabetes, respiratory, hepatic, pancreatic, intestinal and gastric diseases, neurodegenerative and eye diseases, "Curcumin, an atoxic antioxidant and natural NFkappaB, cyclooxygenase-2, lipooxygenase, and inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor: a shield against acute and chronic diseases" by Bengmark S.
c. Neuroprotective effect
In the finding of the A Potential Neuroprotective Agent in treating Parkinson's Disease, found that curcumin exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties, crosses the blood-brain barrier and is neuroprotective in neurological disorders. Several studies in different experimental models of PD strongly support the clinical application of curcumin in PD. The current review explores the therapeutic potential of curcumin in PD, according to "Curcumin: A Potential Neuroprotective Agent in Parkinson's Disease" by Mythri RB, Bharath MS.
17. Multiple sclerosis
In the study of Curcuminoids in Neurodegenerative Diseases, by Dr. Kim DS and research team at the Core LifeSource Inc., showed that curcuminoids found in turmeric prevent β-synuclein aggregation in PD; attenuate ROS-induced COX-2 expression in ALS; ameliorate the symptoms of MS, DE and traumatic brain injury, in addition to neurodamages caused by heavy metal poisoning(4). Others suggested that Curcumin, a dietary spice from turmeric, has outstanding anti-inflammation and neuroprotective effects(17).
In the study to investigate the effect of curcumin, the major polyphenol in turmeric spice, on angiogenesis, adipogenesis, differentiation, apoptosis, and gene expression involved in lipid and energy metabolism in 3T3-L1 adipocyte in cell culture systems and on body weight gain and adiposity in mice, found that in vivo effect of curcumin on the expression of these enzymes was also confirmed by real-time RT-PCR in subcutaneous adipose tissue. In addition, curcumin significantly lowered serum cholesterol and expression of PPARgamma and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha, 2 key transcription factors in adipogenesis and lipogenesis. The curcumin suppression of angiogenesis in adipose tissue together with its effect on lipid metabolism in adipocytes may contribute to lower body fat and body weight gain(18).
19. Pelvic inflammatory disease
According to the study of evaluation of anti-inflammatory property of curcumin (diferuloyl methane) in patients with postoperative inflammation by Satoskar RR, Shah SJ, Shenoy SG., poated in US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, researchers wrote that In this model of postoperative inflammation, the anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin (diferuloyl methane) was investigated in comparison with phenylbutazone and placebo. Phenylbutazone and curcumin produced a better anti-inflammatory response than placebo(19).
1. Overdose may cause gastrointestinal discomfort such as nausea and diarrhea and liver damage.
2. Topical use may be allergic to skin such irritation to certain peoples
3. Do not use the herb in new born, children or if you are pregnant and breast feeding without approval from the related field specialist.
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Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrients, All right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.