Fennel may have a potential effect in increased plantbase estrogenic levels in reduced risk of estrogen-related diseases, some scientists suggested.
Estrogen is a primary female sex hormone, responsible for the development and regulation of the female reproductive system and secondary sex characteristics.
Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) is a plant species of genus, belongings to Apiaceae (Umbelliferae), native to the Mediterranean, used in traditional and herbal medicine as warming, carminative, antispasmodic, antidepressant agent and to stimulate the appetite, ease indigestion, soothe coughing, reduce intestinal spasms, to regulate the menstrual cycle and relieve PMS,...
4. Thiamine (Vitamin B1)
5. Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)
6. Niacin (Vitamin B3)
7. Pantothenic acid (B5)
8. Vitamin B6
9. Folate (Vitamin B9)
10. Vitamin C
In the evaluation of the fennel estrogenic effect in inhibited the increased ectopic uterine motility in facilitated symptoms including pain in primary dysmenorrhea, researchers found that in compared to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in induction of severe adverse effects used for treatment in long-term therapy, application of fennel essential oil (FEO) of LD(50, 1326 mg/kg) in rat model, exerted a therapeutic effect in reduced expression of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) in induced muscle contraction.
Further analysis suggested that fennel essential oil reduced the intensity of oxytocin and PGE(2) induced uterine muscle contractions significantly (25 and 50 microg/ml for oxytocin and 10 and 20 microg/ml PGE(2), respectively without inducing mortality in tested subjects.
The above differentiation were supported by the study of "Effect of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. seed extract on the genital organs of male and female rats" conducted by Dr. Malini T and colleagues.
According to the results, fennel extrogenic effect in oral administration of acetone extract of Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) seeds for 15 days in male rats, exerted a significant malformation of the male reproductive tract including decreased in testes through inhibited Leydig cell production of testosterone and disrupted fluid reabsorption in the efferent ductules via the ERα and vas deferens in transported sperm from the testicle to the urethra.
The application also catalyzed the the imbalanced production of sex hormone of female estrus cycle.
At higher doses fennel seeds increased the weight of oviduct, endometrium, myometrium, cervix and vagina.
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Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrients, All right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.
(1) Effect of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. seed extract on the genital organs of male and female rats by Malini T, Vanithakumari G, Megala N, Anusya S, Devi K, Elango V.(PubMed)
(2) Primary dysmenorrhoea: the importance of both prostaglandins E2 and F2 alpha by Lumsden MA, Kelly RW, Baird DT.(PubMed)
(2) Effect of foeniculum vulgare seed extract on mammary glands and oviducts of ovariectomised rats by Devi K1, Vanithakumari G, Anusya S, Mekala N, Malini T, Elango V.(PubMed)
(3) Fennel and anise as estrogenic agents by Albert-Puleo M.(PubMed)
(4) The effect of fennel essential oil on uterine contraction as a model for dysmenorrhea, pharmacology and toxicology study by Ostad SN1, Soodi M, Shariffzadeh M, Khorshidi N, Marzban H.(PubMed)
(5) Foeniculum vulgare Mill: A Review of Its Botany, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, Contemporary Application, and Toxicology by Shamkant B. Badgujar,* Vainav V. Patel, and Atmaram H. Bandivdekar(PubMed)