Sunday, 25 March 2018

How to Replace Salt to Get Rewards of Lower Blood Pressure and 14 Health Benefits, According to PubMed

By Kyle J. Norton
Too much salt intake has been proven to be a major cause of hypertension, leading to increase risk factor of heart disease and stroke.

Some researchers also found that too much salt intake are associated to higher probability of developing kidney diseases and stomach cancer as well as increasing risk of immune dysfunction.

According to statistic, from 2011 to 2012, the average daily sodium intake among U.S. adults was 3,592 mg far more than the max of 2300 mg recommended by FDA.

According to the joint study lead by Chonbuk National University, Korean low salt fermented soy sauce with yeasts  in production of high ethanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol for bacterial nilation is a balance of more complex and richer flavors with an identical flavor profile pattern to that obtained from high salt soy sauce(1).

Dr. Song YR, the lead scientist said, "using functional yeast cultures offers a technological option to manufacture salt-reduced soy sauce while preserving its typical sensory characteristics without affecting safety"(1)

Contrary to general belief, soy sauce was found to lower risk of hypertension through inhibiting activity of an angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE)(2) which is needed to constrict our blood vessels[1].

The information findings suggested that Korean low salt fermented soy sauce may be a good replacement of salt daily without affecting the taste of high salt intake individual as well as reducing risk of hypertension.

Here are health benefits of Korean low salt fermented soy sauce

A. Health benefits according to studies
[2]. Cardiovascular health
In the investigation of dietary proteins and their effect in heart diseases found that a direct cholesterol lowering effect of proteins has not been shown. Despite earlier research indicating that soy protein has cardioprotective effects as compared to other proteins, these observations have not been confirmed by randomized placebo-controlled trials. However, most experts recommend the consumption of foods rich in plant proteins as alternatives to meat and dairy products rich in saturated fat and containing cholesterol, according to "Dietary proteins and atherosclerosis" by Darioli R.(a)

[3]. Perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR)
In the study of isolated a halophilic lactic acid bacterium, Tetragenococcus halophilus Th221, from soy sauce moromi and the its effect on serum total immunoglobulin E, found that The change in serum total immunoglobulin E improved significantly at the end of the trial compared with the beginning in this group (p < 0.05). The safety of Th221 treatment was confirmed by laboratory tests and inspection of the general condition of each subject and concluded that Th221 can be expected to safely improve the symptoms of PAR, according to "Clinical efficacy of halophilic lactic acid bacterium Tetragenococcus halophilus Th221 from soy saucemoromi for perennial allergic rhinitis" by Nishimura I, Igarashi T, Enomoto T, Dake Y, Okuno Y, Obata A.(b)

[4]. Anti-allergic activities
In the assessment of oral supplementation of Shoyu polysaccharides (SPS) and its effective intervention for patients with perennial allergic rhinitis found that evaluation of the medication's effectiveness after 4 weeks treatment showed significant differences between the SPS- and placebo-treated groups (p<0.05). In conclusion, SPS of soy sauceimproved the quality of life for patients with perennial allergic rhinitis, and soy sauce would be useful in an anti-allergic therapy utilizing everyday foods, according to "Quality of life improvement with soy sauceingredients, Shoyu polysaccharides, in perennial allergic rhinitis: a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical study" by Kobayashi M, Matsushita H, Shioya I, Nagai M, Tsukiyama R, Saito M, Sugita T, Sugimura T, Yamamoto K.(c)

[5]. Breast cancer
In the analyzing of Shoyu and on the gastric mucosa of the rat found that the animals given shoyu were smaller than the controls; 15 intact rats receiving the sauce were healthy at 33 months compared with 7 controls. Only 9 of 50 operated rats lived 33 months. Breast tumors developed in 10 control rats but in none given shoyu. The distribution of other tumors was the same,... and concluded that Shoyu did not appear to be a carcinogen in the rat; its prolonged use impaired neither health nor longevity. Long-term use was associated with gastric mucus loss and nuclear changes in a few rats, occasionally with a mild gastritis. according to "Long-term effect of shoyu (Japanese soy sauce) on the gastric mucosa of the rat" by MacDonald WC, Dueck JW.(4)

[6]. Hypolipidemic effect
In the observation of Soy sauce (Shoyu), a traditional Japanese fermented seasoning and its effect on cholesterol level found that in a 4-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel group study, hyperlipidemic men (TG >150 mg/dl) were treated with 600 mg of SPS (n=15) or placebo (n=15) daily. After 4 weeks, serum TG levels in the SPS-treated group were significantly (P<0.05) lower than the baseline (0 week). In conclusion, SPS of soy sauce reduce lipid absorption, and soy sauce is a potentially promising seasoning for the treatment of hyperlipidemia through food, according to "Hypolipidemic effect of Shoyu polysaccharides from soy sauce in animals and humans" by Kobayashi M, Magishi N, Matsushita H, Hashimoto T, Fujimoto M, Suzuki M, Tsuji K, Saito M, Inoue E, Yoshikawa Y, Matsuura T.(e)

B. Health benefits according to concentration

[7]. Tryptophan
Tryptophan is one of the 10 essential amino acids which the body uses to synthesize the proteins for brain cells need, thus enhancing the nerve cells in information transmitting between themselves and cells in the parts of the body that reduces the risk of anxiety and depression, according to the study of "The effects of tryptophan depletion on neural responses to emotional words in remitted depression" by Roiser JP, Levy J, Fromm SJ, Nugent AC, Talagala SL, Hasler G, Henn FA, Sahakian BJ, Drevets WC.(1)

[8]. Manganese
Manganese beside plays an vital role for the proper and normal growth of human bone structure (accodring to the study of "Bone formation within alumina tubes: effect of calcium, manganese, and chromium dopants" by Pabbruwe MB, Standard OC, Sorrell CC, Howlett CR., posted in PubMed (, it also helps to reduce the risk of cancer, (according to the study of "The effects of 3, 4 or 5 amino salicylic acids on manganese-induced neuronaldeath: ER stress and mitochondrial complexes" by Yoon H, Lee GH, Kim DS, Kim KW, Kim HR, Chae HJ., posted in PubMed ( researchers indicated that the salicylate analogues and the antioxidants did not mediate ER stress in this model. The salicylate analogues reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reversed the deficient mitochondrial membrane potential that was induced by Mn. Taken together, the 3, 4, 5 ASA worked in a similar way, regulating the Mn-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and protecting cells.

[9]. Protein
Protein beside is important building block of bones, muscles, cartilage, skin, and blood, it also enhances the nervous system in information transmitting between cells and cells of the other parts of the body, thus reducing the risk of nervous tension, (according to the study of "The planar polarity protein Scribble1 is essential for neuronal plasticity and brain function" by Moreau MM, Piguel N, Papouin T, Koehl M, Durand CM, Rubio ME, Loll F, Richard EM, Mazzocco C, Racca C, Oliet SH, Abrous DN, Montcouquiol M, Sans N, posted in PubMed (

[10]. Niacin or vitamin B3
Niacin or vitamin B3 beside is important in production of energy in metabolism of carbohydrate, it also essential for DNA repairing, according to the study of `Niacin deficiency delays DNA excision repair and increases spontaneous and nitrosourea-induced chromosomal instability in rat bone marrow`by Kostecki LM, Thomas M, Linford G, Lizotte M, Toxopeus L, Bartleman AP, Kirkland JB., posted in PubMed (, production of steroid hormones in the adrenal gland, improving blood circulation and lowering the bad cholesterol (LDL) levels., according to the study of `Lowering LDLcholesterol with margarine containing plant stanol/sterol esters: is it still relevant in 2011?`by Doggrell SA., posted in PubMed (

C. Other health benefits

[11]. Cholesterol
Certain studies found that certain types of soy sauce (popular in Chinese cookery) have been shown to reduce the levels of bad cholesterol (LDL) because of the existence of large amounts of the isoflavones, so choose your soy sauce wisely, according to the study of `Soy isoflavones lower serum total and LDL cholesterol in humans: a meta-analysis of 11 randomized controlled trials`by Taku K, Umegaki K, Sato Y, Taki Y, Endoh K, Watanabe S., posted in PubMed (

[12]. Isoflavones
Isoflavones is one of the weak estrogen that can compete with estrogen for the same receptor sites, as it decreasing the health risks of excess estrogen, promoting healthy menstrual cycle and reducing the risk of cancers caused by high levels of strong estrogen., according to the study of `Red clover and soy isoflavones-an in vitro safety assessment`by Reiter E, Gerster P, Jungbauer A., posted in PubMed (, researchers wrote that
Isoflavones and plant extracts significantly reduced the proliferation activity of the treated cancer cell lines.

[13]. Riboflavin
Riboflavin or vitamin B2 besides is important for the production of energy in the metabolism of fats, carbohydrates, and proteins due to its coenzymes, flavin adenine dinucleotide and Flavin mononucleotide properties, it also is the best of natural element for treating migraines and muscle pain reliever used together with magnesium, according to the study of `Effectiveness of high-dose riboflavin in migraine prophylaxis. A randomized controlled trial`by Schoenen J, Jacquy J, Lenaerts M., posted in PubMed (

[14]. Magnesium
Magnesium beside helps to maintain the right ratio with calcium, thus aiding the digestive system in absorption of calcium, according to the study of `Associations of calcium and magnesium in serum and hair with bone mineral density in premenopausal women`by Song CH, Barrett-Connor E, Chung JH, Kim SH, Kim KS., posted in PubMed ( it also reduces the risk of irregular heart beat and impairs glucose tolerance, according to the study of `Dietary magnesium deficiency induces heart rhythm changes, impairs glucose tolerance, and decreases serum cholesterol in post menopausal women`by Nielsen FH, Milne DB, Klevay LM, Gallagher S, Johnson L., posted in PubMed (

(1) Effects of indigenous yeasts on physicochemical and microbial properties of Korean soy sauce prepared by low-salt fermentation by Song YR1, Jeong DY2, Baik SH3.(PubMed)
(2) Purification and identification of an angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitor from soy sauce.
Kinoshita E1, Yamakoshi J, Kikuchi M(PubMed)


No comments:

Post a Comment