Lentil, a type of pulse and tiny legume that can be cooked quickly and rich in protein and fiber is a bushy annual plant of genus Lens pf the Fabaceae family, native to Middle East.
Metabolic syndrome is a set of conditions characterized by increased blood pressure, high blood sugar, excess body fat around the waist, and abnormal cholesterol or triglyceride levels which are considered as risk factors of cardiovascular disease and diabetes.
Investigation of lentils effect in risk of metabolic syndrome was depending to numbers of mechanism through several aspects.
The testing of low-GLoad foods effect in metabolic syndrome occurrence with 131 male Nile rats aged 3 weeks to 15 months randomly assigned to 15 dietary exposures of varied Glycemic Index (GI, 36-88), GLoad (102-305/2000 kcal), and cumulative GLoad (Cum GLoad=days×GLoad, 181-537g total glucose), indicated that lentil diets with low GLoads (102, 202) displayed a significant effect in reduced onset and treatment of metabolic syndrome in compared to other food with higher glycemic index.
More specifically, the benefit from lentils exceeded dietary factors of conbined macronutrient composition (%Energy from carbohydrate:fat:protein, between 70:10:20 to 40:40:20), total fiber (0-24%), or dietary caloric density (2.9-4.7 kcal/g) found in the legume.
Additionally, the experiment also found that lentil diet even reversed the progression in metabolic syndrome and diabetes expression in the tested Nile rats.
According to the randomized assays, intake of lentils over 15 dietary exposures decreased factors of insulin resistance, lower blood sugars, particular in fasting glucose levels as well as improving levels of blood lipid and ratio of cholesterol= high density choleaterol#/ total cholesterol#.
Inspection of total food intake of tested rat also demonstrated a strong correlation between the cumulative GLoad (Cum GLoad=days×GLoad, 181-537g total glucose) and parameters of MetS and T2DM.
In other word, longer term intake of lower Gload intake are correlated linearly to lesser prevalence risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes.
More profoundly, according to the University of Toronto, in the experiment to investigate the effects of frequent consumption (five cups/week over 8 weeks) of pulses (yellow peas, chickpeas, navy beans and lentils), compared with counselling to reduce energy intake by 2093 kJ/d (500 kcal/d), on risk factors of the MetSyn of two groups (nineteen and twenty-one subjects, respectively) of overweight or obese (mean BMI 32·8 kg/m2) adults, measurement of body weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting blood parameters and 24 h food intakes at weeks 1, 4 and 8 and blood glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and ghrelin were measured after a 75 g oral glucose load at weeks 1 and 8 indicated that frequent consumption (five cups/week over 8 weeks) of pulses displayed a significant and positive effect in reduced energy intake in ubction of weight loss, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, glycosylated Hb (HbA1c), and glucose AUC and homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) following the glucose load (P < 0·05) similar to those in energy group.
Glycosylated Hb (HbA1c), a measurement of three-month average plasma glucose concentration is used to determine risk of diabetes in suspected subject. There is an suggestion of lower HbA1c level by 1% associated to lower 19% risk of diabetes onset.
Homeostatic model is a test with an aim to assess the function of β-cell and insulin resistance (IR) from basal (fasting) glucose and insulin or C-peptide, a proinsulin molecule concentrations.
Further analysis also found that frequent consumption (five cups/week over 8 weeks) of pulses (yellow peas, chickpeas, navy beans and lentils also increased HDL levels and fasting C-peptide and insulin Area under the curve (AUC) responses in compared to energy group. In deed, the influence of the above parameters was associated linearly and directly to types of diet intake..
More precisely, pulse treatment group showed HDL and C-peptide increased by 4·5 and 12·3 %, respectively, in compared to decreased by 0·8 and 7·6 %, respectively, in the energy-restricted group.
Insulin AUC decreased in both females and males on the energy-restricted diet by 24·2 and 4·8 %, respectively, but on the pulse diet it decreased by 13·9 % in females and increased by 27·3 % in males (P < 0·05).
Taken together, there is no doubt that frequent intake of lentils or legume products may have a substantial and direct influence in reduced risk, progression and treatment of metabolic syndrome.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.
(1) Low glycemic load diets protect against metabolic syndrome and Type 2 diabetes mellitus in the male Nile rat by Bolsinger J1, Landstrom M2, Pronczuk A3, Auerbach A4, Hayes KC5.(PubMed)
(2) Regular consumption of pulses for 8 weeks reduces metabolic syndrome risk factors in overweight and obese adults by Mollard RC1, Luhovyy BL, Panahi S, Nunez M, Hanley A, Anderson GH.(PubMed)
(3) A legume-based hypocaloric diet reduces proinflammatory status and improves metabolic features in overweight/obese subjects by Hermsdorff HH1, Zulet MÁ, Abete I, Martínez JA(PubMed)