Saturday, 17 March 2018

The Nightshade Vegetable Gets Rid of Hypercholesterolemia and Hypertension Effectively, Medical Literature Reviewed

Eggplant may have a potential and substantial effect in reduced risk and treatment of hypercholesterolemia and hypertension, some scientists suggested.

Eggplant is a species of S. melongena with deeply purple color, belongings to the family Solanaceae and native to India, cultivated in southern and eastern Asia since prehistory.

1. Hypercholesterolemia
Hypercholesterolemia is a common genetic disorder of cholesterol metabolism characterized by abnormal high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, one of the leading cause of cardiovascular disease.

Hyperlipidemia is a chronic condition of abnormal high levels of blood cholesterol.

According to statistic, approximately 78 million U.S. adults (nearly 37%) had abnormal high blood cholesterol levels in US in 2012.

In the investigation of the blood lipid effect of four eggplant varieties on lipid indices in 108 adult albino rats for 4 weeks (30days), assigned to 2 major groups (fed with 10% and 20% eggplant supplementation) with four sub groups (Groups A-D) and remainder rat assigned to control group fed with commercial feed, at the end of experiment, researchers found that all groups fed with eggplant supplement regardless to doses exhibit a significant lower blood cholesterol in compared to control group.

Further analysis indicated that administration of diet supplemented at dose of 10% and 20% of S. aetheopicum and S. gilo in rat group showed a highest of 9.92 and 9.53 and lowest 7.65 and 5.95g weight gain respectively.

Levels of cholesterol concentration of (60.76±1.7mg/dl) also was found significant lower in the 20% S. gilo supplemented diet rat group in compared to control and levels of HDL concentration significantly increased in rats placed on 10% and 20% S. macrocarpon (oval) and S. gilo supplemented diet respectively relative to the control group.

The results finding indicated that all 4 varieties of eggplant exerted s strong effect in displayed weight reduction and improved hypolipidemic levels.

Although Solanum gilo and S. macrocarpon (oval) displayed higher hypocholesterolemia than other 2 groups, over all, all groups increased HDL and reduced weight gain in tested subjects.

Dr. OSSAMULU, the lead author, after taking into account of other con founders said, "(The findings suggested that eggplant) can be employed in the management of overweight and several cardiovasular diseases".

In the study to test the efficacy of dried powdered fruits of eggplant (Solanum melongena) used in traditional medicine in Bazil for treatment of human hyperlipidemia, researchers at the the joint study lead by the Instituto de Endocrinologia de Maringá conducted a double-blind placebo-controlled study to test the effectiveness of oral Solanum melongena (SM) in a total of 41 hyperlipidemic volunteers allocated to active treatment (n= 21, received two capsules containing SM (450 mg) or placebo (n= 20, 450 mg) twice a day for 3 months, indicated that there were no significant difference of levels of serum triglycerides, HDL-c, VLDL-c, AST, ALT, gGT, glucose and body mass index, in the group treated with SM in compared to placebo.

And both groups expressed the same levels of decrease of levels of serum total cholesterol, LDL-c and LDL-c/HDL-c.

The result of the findings prompted Dr. Silvard fruits), require further clinical trials before being recommended to treat hyperlipidemia".

Contrast to the above study, oral application of infusion of a powdered preparation of the eggplant fruit of 38 hypercholesterolemic human volunteers, receiving either S. melongena infusion (N = 19) or placebo (N = 19) participated in two clinical experiments, exhibited a strong effect in significantly reduced the blood levels of total and LDL cholesterol and of apolipoprotein B in compared to control, according to the Intraindividual analysis.

However, after taking into account of dietary orientation, researchers suggested that no intra- or intergroup differences were seen for any of the parameters analyzed.

Dr. Guimarães PR, the lead scientist at the Instituto de Ciências Biológicas said, " S. melongena infusion had a modest and transitory effect, which was not different from that obtained with standard orientation for dyslipidemia patients (diet and physical activities)".

2, Hypertension 
Hypertension is long term medical condition characterized by abnormal high blood pressure.

According to statistic from the World Health organization, high blood pressure affects 1.13 billion people worldwide and from 1975 to 2015, mean systolic blood pressure and blood pressure have stayed more or less the same in men and has decreased slightly among women.

According to the University of Massachusetts, eggplant containing high fiber and low soluble carbohydrate content and the phenolic-linked antioxidant activity and alpha-glucosidase exerted powerful antioxidant effects in inhibited free radical expression and ROS chain reaction to induce type 2 diabetes' complications such as hypertension.

Further analysis also suggested that the functional food also inhibited the angiotensin hormone which has been found to elevate vasoconstriction and increase blood pressure in diabetics.
Dr. Kwon YI, after taking into account of other con founders, suggested. " high angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity (Of eggplant),....... provide a strong biochemical basis for ....... reducing associated hypertension".

Indeed, the recommendation to include portion eggplant in daily diet by the National Diabetes Education Program of NIH, Mayo Clinic and American Diabetes Association may be a choice to reduce diabetes complication risk of hypertension.

The illustration strong indicated that oxidative stress initiated by ROS may place an important role in risk of diabetes and diabetes' hypertension..
Interestingly, in the study to evaluate the cardiovascular action of Solanum melongena extract (SME) in vivo and in vitro, researchers found that application of SME display a significant and produced dose-dependent effect in reduced hypertensive responses in normotensive albino rats through modulated expression of β-adrenoceptor on cardiac and smooth muscle tissues in precipitated high blood pressure.

Additionally, administration of SME regulated the stimulation of the expression of muscarinic receptor in reduced high blood pressure as well as improving heart rate.

Furthermore, SME injection also decreased the efficacy of the medication of β-adrenoceptor blocker, propranolol, and the cholinergic receptor blocker, atropine in regulated abnormal heart rhythms, and to protect the heart from a second heart attack (myocardial infarction) after a first heart attack (secondary prevention).

In other words, increasing doses of β-adrenoceptor blocker, propranolol, and the cholinergic receptor blocker may be necessary to achieve the same effect in reduced risk of heart attack with intake of eggplant.

More precisely, researchers suggested that SME modulated high blood pressure through induction of vaso-relaxation and negative inotropy and mediation of the β-adrenergic and acetylcholine receptors in promoted vasodilation of the resistant vessels and a reduction in heart activity, respectively.

Conclusively, in compared to Captopril, a hypertensive medicine, researchers also indicated that possibly, the hypotensive effect of SME could be attributed for by SME influence on the activity of the renin-angiotensin system, which is a hormone system with function in regulated blood pressure and fluid balance.

In fact, the effect of eggplant in regulated function of diuresis in the renin-angiotensin system may be resulted of ameliorated risk of high blood pressure as diuretics was found to associate to the function of kidneys in removal of more sodium and water from the body, triggering relaxation of the blood vessel walls, thereby lowering blood pressure.

Taking altogether, although there are no universal confirmation, eggplant may have potential and therapeutic effect in reduced risk and treatment of hyperlipidemia and Hypertension,

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrients, All right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Eggplant (Solanum melongena) infusion has a modest and transitory effect on hypercholesterolemic subjects, Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
On-line version ISSN 1414-431X Braz J Med Biol Res vol.33 n.9 Ribeirão Preto Sept. 2000
(2) Hypolipidemic Properties of Four Varieties of Eggplants (Solanum melongena L.) by ,OSSAMULU, I, feanyi Famous; 2,AKANYA, Helmina Olufunmilayo; 3,JIGAM, Ali Audu; 4,EGWIM , Evans Chidi 5,ADEYEMI, Henry Yemi, International Journal of Pharmaceutical Science InventionISSN (Online): 2319 – 6718, ISSN (Print): 2319 – 670X Volume 3 Issue 8 ‖ August 2014 ‖ PP.47-54
(3) [Absence of hypolipidemic effect of Solanum melongena L. (eggplant) on hyperlipidemic patients].[Article in Portuguese] by Silva GE1, Takahashi MH, Eik Filho W, Albino CC, Tasim GE, Serri Lde A, Assef AH, Cortez DA, Bazotte RB.(PubMed)
(4) In vitro studies of eggplant (Solanum melongena) phenolics as inhibitors of key enzymes relevant for type 2 diabetes and hypertension by Kwon YI1, Apostolidis E, Shetty K.(PubMed)
(5) Hypotensive action of Solanum melongena on normotensive rats by O. L. Shum and K. W. Chiu(Wiley Online Library)

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