Grape Seed Extract is the commercial extracts from whole grape seeds, containing many concentrations, including vitamin E, flavonoids, linoleic acid, oligomeric proanthocyanidins(OPCs),...
Resveratrol is a phytochemical in the class of Stilbenoids, found abundantly in skins and seed of grape wine, nuts, peanuts,....
1. Anti cancers
In the review of resveratrol and it effects as a chemopreventive agent, tumor initation, promotion, and progression via multiple pathways, indicated that resveratrol exerts antioxidant activities, hence contributing to the prevention of tumor initiation. Growing or metastasizing carcinomas are inhibited by resveratrol through prevention of angiogenesis by inhibiting VEGF and matrix metalloproteases. Induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, important mechanisms for cancer therapy, are stimulated by resveratrol through different mechanisms, e.g., activation of p53 and modulation of cell cycle proteins, according to "Fighting cancer with red wine? Molecular mechanisms of resveratrol" by Kraft TE, Parisotto D, Schempp C, Efferth T.(1)
2. Anti cancers and anti inflammatory effects
In the observation of Resveratrol's effects in exhibition of several physiological activities including anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities in vitro and in experimental animal models, as well as in humans, found that Anticancer activity of this compound is mainly due to induction of apoptosis via several pathways, as well as alteration of gene expressions, all leading to a decrease in tumor initiation, promotion, and progression. Resveratrol exhibits anti-inflammatory activity through modulation of enzymes and pathways that produce mediators of inflammation and also induction of programmed cell death in activated immune cells. Resveratrolhas been shown to produce no adverse effects, even when consumed at high concentrations, according to "Potential of resveratrol in anticancer and anti-inflammatory therapy" by Udenigwe CC, Ramprasath VR, Aluko RE, Jones PJ.(2)
3. Prostate cancer
In the evaluation of the tumor suppressor gene PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) and the androgen receptor (AR) in tumor development and progression in prostate carcinogenesis, found that resveratrol may act as potential adjunctive treatment for late-stage hormone refractory prostate cancer. More importantly, for the first time, our study demonstrates the mechanism by which AR regulates PTEN expression at the transcription level, indicating the direct link between a nuclear receptor and the PI3K/AKT pathway, according to "Resveratrol regulates the PTEN/AKT pathway through androgen receptor-dependent and -independent mechanisms in prostate cancer cell lines' by Wang Y, Romigh T, He X, Orloff MS, Silverman RH, Heston WD, Eng C.(3)
4. Cardiovascular diseases
In the revie of reviews some of the key studies, and the known mechanisms for these beneficial effects. Evidence from different experimental studies, including from the authors' laboratories, and the beneficial effects of polyphenols found in red wine, especially resveratrol in grape skins.
found that Resveratrol benefits include a reduction in cardiovascularmorbidity and mortality, lung cancer and prostate cancer by approximately 30% to 50%, 57% and 50%, respectively. Polyphenols possess antioxidant, superoxide-scavenging, ischemic-preconditioning and angiogenic properties. Some of these properties of polyphenols may explain their protective effects on the cardiovascular system, as well as other body organs, according to "Significance of wine and resveratrol in cardiovascular disease: French paradox revisited" by Vidavalur R, Otani H, Singal PK, Maulik N.(4)
5. Cardiovascular health
In the review of Resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene), a member of natural, plant-derived chemicals known as polyphenols and is attracting increased attention due to its diverse health benefits especially in case of cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes and neurological problems, indicated that Recently, resveratrol was found to induce autophagy and regenerate myocardial ischemic tissue treated with stem cells. Overall observation indicates that resveratrol has a high therapeutic potentials for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, according to "Resveratrol and cardiovascular health" by Das M, Das DK.(5)
6. Anti inflammatory effects
In the study of implantation and growth of metastatic cancer cells at distant organs is promoted by inflammation-dependent mechanism, found that resveratrol remarkably inhibited hepatic retention and metastatic growth of melanoma cells by 50% and 75%, respectively. The mechanism involved IL-18 blockade at three levels: First, resveratrol prevented IL-18 augmentation in the blood of melanoma cell-infiltrated livers. Second, resveratrol inhibited IL-18-dependent expression of VCAM-1 by tumor-activated hepatic sinusoidal endothelium, preventing melanoma cell adhesion to the microvasculature. Third, resveratrol inhibited adhesion- and proliferation-stimulating effects of IL-18 on metastatic melanoma cells through hydrogen peroxide-dependent nuclear factor-kappaB translocation blockade on these cells, according to "Resveratrol prevents inflammation-dependent hepatic melanoma metastasis by inhibiting the secretion and effects of interleukin-18" by Salado C, Olaso E, Gallot N, Valcarcel M, Egilegor E, Mendoza L, Vidal-Vanaclocha F.(6)
7. Oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction
In the investiagtion of the role of S6K1 in aging-associated endothelial dysfunction and effects of the polyphenol resveratrol on S6K1 in aging endothelial cells, wrote that our data demonstrate a causal role of the hyperactive S6K1 in eNOS uncoupling leading to endothelial dysfunction and vascular aging. Resveratrol improves endothelial function in aging, at least in part, through inhibition of S6K1. Targeting S6K1 may thus represent a novel therapeutic approach for aging-associated vascular disease, according to "Hyperactive S6K1 mediates oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction in aging: inhibition by resveratrol" by Rajapakse AG, Yepuri G, Carvas JM, Stein S, Matter CM, Scerri I, Ruffieux J, Montani JP, Ming XF, Yang Z.(7)
8. Insulin resistance
In the evaluation of the effects of Res on insulin sensitivity and the underlying mechanism, insulin-resistant KKA(y) mice were treated with 2 and 4 g/kg diets of Res for 12 weeks, found that Res intervention reduces blood glucose and serum insulin levels, improves insulin and glucose tolerance, increases serum adiponectin and adiponectin mRNA levels in epididymal adipose tissues, and more importantly, elevates Sirt1, p-AMPK, p-IRS1, and p-AKT levels in liver and soleus muscles, according to "Effects of resveratrol on the amelioration of insulin resistance in KKA(y) mice" by Chen S, Li J, Zhang Z, Li W, Sun Y, Zhang Q, Feng X, Zhu W.(8)
9. Propionibacterium acnes
In the investigation of whether P. acnes biofilms could be eradicated by plant extracts or their active compounds, and whether other mechanisms besides killing of biofilm cells could be involved, found that out of 119 plant in the study, researchers identified five with potent antibiofilm activity against P. acnes (extracts from Epimedium brevicornum, Malus pumila, Polygonum cuspidatum, Rhodiola crenulata and Dolichos lablab). We subsequently identified icariin, resveratrol and salidroside as active compounds in three of these extracts. Extracts from E. brevicornum and P. cuspidatum, as well as their active compounds (icariin and resveratrol, respectively) showed marked antibiofilm activity when used in subinhibitory concentrations, indicating that killing of microbial cells is not their only mode of action, accoridng to "Eradication of Propionibacterium acnes biofilms by plant extracts and putative identification of icariin, resveratrol and salidroside as active compounds" by Coenye T, Brackman G, Rigole P, De Witte E, Honraet K, Rossel B, Nelis HJ.(9)
10. Healthy heart and longevity
In the review focuses on the anti-aging aspects of resveratrol, the possible mechanisms of action,
found that resveratrol can induce the expression of several longevity genes including Sirt1, Sirt3, Sirt4, FoxO1, Foxo3a and PBEF and prevent aging-related decline in cardiovascular function including cholesterol level and inflammatory response, but it is unable to affect actual survival or life span of mice, according to "Resveratrol and red wine, healthy heart and longevity" by Das DK, Mukherjee S, Ray D.(10)
In the assessment of the effects of the antioxidants resveratrol and quercetin on frozen-thawed ram sperm, found that Semen samples (which exceeded minimum standards) from four mature crossbreed Santa Inês rams were pooled and aliquots of each pool were diluted in Tris-egg yolk-glycerol, with the addition of 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 μg/mL of resveratrol and quercetin in Experiment 1 and Experiment 2, respectively. In Experiment 1, the proportion of sperm with a high mitochondrial membrane potential was greater (P < 0.02) in the control group than in resveratrol 20 μg/mL group. In Experiment 2, the proportion of sperm with high mitochondrial membrane potential was greater in the control group (P < 0.0001) than in the other experimental groups, and greater in the quercetin 5 μg/mL group (P < 0.05) than in the other quercetin-treated groups, according to "Effect of antioxidants resveratrol and quercetin on in vitro evaluation of frozen ram sperm" by Silva EC, Cajueiro JF, Silva SV, Soares PC, Guerra MM.(11)
12. Incision-induced acute and chronic pain
In the searching for more efficacious treatments in inhibition of incision-induced pain and prevention of the transition to chronic pain following surgery, found that local injection of resveratrol around the surgical wound strongly attenuates incision-induced allodynia. Intraplantar IL-6 injection and plantar incision induces persistent nociceptive sensitization to PGE2 injection into the affected paw after the resolution of allodynia to the initial stimulus. We further show that resveratrol treatment at the time of IL-6 injection or plantar incision completely blocks the development of persistent nociceptive sensitization consistent with the blockade of a transition to a chronic pain state by resveratrol treatment, according to "Resveratrol engages AMPK to attenuate ERK and mTOR signaling in sensory neurons and inhibits incision-induced acute and chronic pain" by Tillu DV, Melemedjian OK, Asiedu MN, Qu N, De Felice M, Dussor G, Price TJ.(12)
13. Anti diabetes
In the evaluation of resveratrol, a polyphenolic SIRT1 activator and its SIRT1 activation in an in vitro fluorescent based assay (EC(50) : 7 μM) and the efficacy of resveratrol was also evaluated in ob/ob mice for its antidiabetic and associated metabolic effects, found that a significant improvement observed in the glucose excursion in the oral glucose tolerance test performed for 120 min; although an insignificant improvement in the triglycerides, total cholesterol, adiponectin and free fatty acid levels was observed at different doses of resveratrol tested. The present findings suggest that resveratrol is an antihyperglycemic agent and drugs similar to resveratrol can be considered as an effective therapeutic adjuvant for the current treatment of diabetes mellitus, according to "Antidiabetic activity of resveratrol, a known SIRT1 activator in a genetic model for type-2 diabetes" by Sharma S, Misra CS, Arumugam S, Roy S, Shah V, Davis JA, Shirumalla RK, Ray A.(13)
14. Neuroprotective effects
In the elucidation of the neuroprotective effect and influence of resveratrolon the extracellular levels of neurotransmitter and neuromodulator during ischemia/reperfusion in rats,
found that chronic treatment with resveratrol remarkably reduced the release of excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, aspartate and neuromodulator d-Serine during ischemia and reperfusion; and significantly increased the basal extracellular levels of inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-amino-n-butyric acid, glycine and taurine. Chronic treatment with resveratrol also ameliorated O-phosphoethanolamine levels and excitotoxic index during ischemia and reperfusio, according to "Neuroprotective effects of resveratrol on ischemic injury mediated by modulating the release of neurotransmitter and neuromodulator in rats" by Li C, Yan Z, Yang J, Chen H, Li H, Jiang Y, Zhang Z(14)
15. Neuroprotective effects
In the investigation of the neuroprotective properties of resveratrol found that Resveratrol has neuroprotective features both in vitro and in vivo in models of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but it has proved to be beneficial also in ischemic stroke, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and epilepsy, according to "Neuroprotective properties of resveratrol in different neurodegenerative disorders" by Albani D, Polito L, Signorini A, Forloni G.(15).
Natural Medicine for Fatty Liver And Obesity Reversal - The Revolutionary Findings To Achieve Optimal Health And Loose Weight
Author biography: Kyle J. Norton
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.
B.1. Resveratrol (1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20443159(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18667005