Sunday, 27 October 2013

Popular Herbs - Ginkgo biloba

Ginkgo biloba is oldest living tree species, genus Ginkgo, belonging to the family Ginkgoaceae, native to China, from temperate zone to subtropical zone and some parts of north America. It Has been used in traditional herbal medicine in treating impotence, memory loss,respiratory diseases, circulatory disorders and deafness as well as preventing drunkenness, and bedwetting.

Health Benefits
1. Brain-cognition effects
Ginkgo Biloba extract (GBE) have exhibited the function of alleviating symptoms of cognitive impairment in aging populationby increasing the SSVEP(state visually evoked potentia) amplitude at occipital and frontal sites and SSVEP latency at left temporal and left frontal sites, according to the study of "Examining brain-cognition effects of ginkgo biloba extract: brain activation in the left temporal and left prefrontal cortex in an object working memory task" by Silberstein RB, Pipingas A, Song J, Camfield DA, Nathan PJ, Stough C., posted in PubMed(1)

2. Acute cognitive effects
Administration of GBE complexed with phosphatidylserine have exerted the results of improingsecondary memory performance and speed of memory task performance, according to the study of "Acute cognitive effects of standardised Ginkgo biloba extract complexed with phosphatidylserine" by Kennedy DO, Haskell CF, Mauri PL, Scholey AB., posted in PubMed(2)

3. Tinnitus
A Randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials of Ginkgo biloba extract have shown the evidence of efficacy in the treatment of tinnitus from three trials in patients in whom tinnitus was the primary complaint according to the study of "Ginkgo biloba extract in the treatment of tinnitus: a systematic review" by von Boetticher A., posted in PubMed(3)

4. Tardive dyskinesia
Extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb) has exerted the activity as an antioxidant in scavenging free radicals for tardive dyskinesia (TD) in in schizophrenia patients by significantly decreased the AIMS(Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale) total score in patients with TD, according to the study of "Extract of Ginkgo biloba treatment for tardive dyskinesia in schizophrenia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial" by Zhang WF, Tan YL, Zhang XY, Chan RC, Wu HR, Zhou DF., posted in PubMed(4)

5. Respiratory inflammationCombinations of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract (EGb761) plus the carotenoid antioxidant astaxanthin (ASX) and vitamin C have exhibited the property for the prevention of onset of acute and chronic inflammatory disease, according to the study of "Summative interaction between astaxanthin, Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761) and vitamin C in suppression of respiratory inflammation: a comparison with ibuprofen" by Haines DD, Varga B, Bak I, Juhasz B, Mahmoud FF, Kalantari H, Gesztelyi R, Lekli I, Czompa A, Tosaki A., posted in PubMed(5)

6. Ischemic brain injury
Standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba has demonstarted the activity of protecting neuronal cells against ischemic brain injury through the specific up- and down-modulation of various proteins, according to the study of "Identification of proteins differentially expressed in cerebral cortexes of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761)-treated rats in a middle cerebral artery occlusion model--a proteomics approach" by Koh PO., posted in PubMed(6)

7. Colon cancer
Standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba has exhibited the function of inhibition of the progression of human colon cancer cells, according to the study of "Effects of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb761 on human colon adenocarcinoma cells" by Chen XH, Miao YX, Wang XJ, Yu Z, Geng MY, Han YT, Wang LX., posted in PubMed(7)

8. Hypertension
Ginkgo enhanced endothelium-dependent vasodilation and elevation of the endothelial intracellular Ca(2+) level in SHR, resulting in hypotension, according to the study of "Effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on blood pressure and vascular endothelial response by acetylcholine in spontaneously hypertensive rats" by Kubota Y, Tanaka N, Kagota S, Nakamura K, Kunitomo M, Umegaki K, Shinozuka K., posted in PubMed(8)

(9) Osteoporosis
Extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb) significantly impprove the percentage of the bone by reversing the loss of the percentage of the alveolar bone of the mandible and of the percentage of trabecular bone of the femur, according to the study of "Evidences of osteoporosis improvement in Wistar rats treated with Ginkgo biloba extract: a histomorphometric study of mandible and femur" by Lucinda LM, Vieira BJ, Oliveira TT, Sá RC, Peters VM, Reis JE, Guerra MO., posted in PubMed(9)

10. Cardiovascular tissues
Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb) has shown the protection of the cardiovascular tissues against HgCl(2)-induced oxidative damage, according to the study of "Protective effects of Ginkgo biloba extract against mercury(II)-induced cardiovascular oxidative damage in rats" by Tunali-Akbay T, Sener G, Salvarli H, Sehirli O, Yarat A., posted in PubMed(10)

11. Hyperlipidemia
Ginkgo biloba leaves (EGB) has demonstrated the activities of limitation of the absorption of cholesterol, inactivation of HMGCoA and favorable regulation of profiles of essential polyunsaturated fatty acid (EFA), according to the study of "Application of GC/MS-based metabonomic profiling in studying the lipid-regulating effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on diet-induced hyperlipidemia in rats" by Zhang Q, Wang GJ, A JY, Wu D, Zhu LL, Ma B, Du Y., posted in PubMed(11)

12. Sarcopenia
Sarcopenia is the degenerative loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength due to aging. EGb 761, the extract of Ginkgo biloba restored a more juvenile gene expression pattern by regenerating the aged muscle and reversing the age-related metabolic shift from lipids to glucose utilization. according to the study of "The extract of Ginkgo biloba EGb 761 reactivates a juvenile profile in the skeletal muscle of sarcopenic rats by transcriptional reprogramming" by Bidon C, Lachuer J, Molgó J, Wierinckx A, de la Porte S, Pignol B, Christen Y, Meloni R, Koenig H, Biguet NF, Mallet J., posted in PubMed(12)

13. Oral cavity cancer
kaempferol and quercetin of EGb 761, extracted from Ginkgo biloba leaves have induced caspase-3-dependent apoptosis of oral cavity cancer cells and can be considered as possible anti-oral cavity cancer agents, according to the study of 'Kaempferol and quercetin, components of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761), induce caspase-3-dependent apoptosis in oral cavity cancer cells" Kang JW, Kim JH, Song K, Kim SH, Yoon JH, Kim KS., posted in PubMed(13)

14. Pancreatic cancer
Ginkgo biloba extract kaempferol has effectively inhibited the pancreatic cancer cell proliferation and induced cancer cell apoptosis, according to the study of "Ginkgo biloba extract kaempferol inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells" by Zhang Y, Chen AY, Li M, Chen C, Yao Q., posted in PubMed(14)

15. Erectile dysfunction
The extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves (EGb 761) significantly decreased the NCE latency, but increased the number of NCEs and the dopamine levels in the BNST and MPOA in rats, ."Ginkgo biloba extract treatment increases noncontact erections and central dopamine levels in rats: role of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the medial preoptic area" by Yeh KY, Liu YZ, Tai MY, Tsai YF. posted in PubMed(15)

16. Etc.

Side effects
1. Ginkgo biloba extract can interact with anti coagulation medication, if you are taking warfarin, coumadin, aspirin, heparin etc., please consult with your doctor before taking Ginkgo biloba.
2. Allergic effect to certain people
3. It also interacts with Anticonvulsant, Antidepressant, Antihypertensive medications, etc. due to the presence of Amentoflavone in its leaves
4. Etc.

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