Monday, 28 October 2013

Allergies - Cigarette Smoke Allergy

Allergy is the over reaction of immune system to harmless substances after entering our body affecting 1 in every 3 people.

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Allergy is defined as the type I reactions or Immediate Hypersensitivity as a result of
over production of Immunoglobulin E (IgE), a class of allergic antibody by the immune system against harmless substance that lead to mediated release of histamine and other mediators from mast cells and basophils, resulting in allergic reaction, including mucus secretion, sneezing, itching, etc.
Types of Allergy
B. Cigarette Smoke Allergy
The are some controversy regarded to cigarette smoke cause of allergic reaction. In a study of " Cigarette smoke suppresses in vitro allergic activation of mouse mast cells." by Mortaz E, Folkerts G, Engels F, Nijkamp FP, Redegeld FA. (Division of Pharmacology and Pathophysiology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands. posted in US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, researchers found that Our study suggests that exposure to cigarette smoke may lead to a reduced allergic activation of mast cells without affecting their response to activation via e.g. bacterial-derived LPS., but cigarette can cause over aggression of immune system, triggering allergic symptoms to certaim peoples such as watery eyes, coughing and sneezing.Some researchers argue that cigarette smoking may elevate symptoms of allergy but not the allergy itself, according to the article of "Smoke Allergies: 4 Reasons Why You Might Hate This Article" by By webdan65 posted in Hubpages, the author indicated that because smoke isn’t a true allergen, it does not create the same immune response (i.e. allergy attack) that a grain of pollen would. Or course there is no denying that smoke can aggravate and irritate underlying allergies, but it really cannot be considered the cause of them.
Regardless to the controversy, Cigarette Smoke does cause (or elevate pre-existed symptoms) some symptoms of allergy.

B. 1. How to determine the severity of the allergic effects

Depending to the allergy stimulating effect, some researchers suggested to scale the severity from 1 to 4 and followed by degeneration scale, but from -1 to -4
B.1.1. The severity scale from +1 to +4
+1. The first level of stimulation
If there is no symptoms at all or If the patient is alert and function morally after exposing to allergens
+2. The second level of stimulation
The patient have become irritable, hyperactive, tense, thirsty, etc. after exposing to allergens
+3. The third level of stimulation
The patient have become hypomanic, aggressive, apprehensive, etc.
+4. The fourth level of stimulation
The patient have become mania, agitation, over excitement, etc.

B.1.2. Degeneration scale from -1 to -4
-1. If a patient is experience symptoms of reaction of runny nose, hive, diarrhea, etc.
-2. If a patient is experience symptoms of reaction of tiredness, fatigue, swelling etc.
-3. If a patient is experience symptoms of reaction of depression, mental disturbance, confusion, mood change, etc.
-4. If a patient is experience symptoms of reaction of sever depression, paranoia, etc.

B.2. Symptoms
Symptoms of cigarette ( Preexisted symptoms elevated by cigarette smoke)
1. Respiratory reaction, including system of asthma, coughing, Nasal congestion and increased mucus production, burning, watery, or irritated eyes. etc.
2. Central nervous system, including system of breathing difficulty, wheezing, asthma, etc.
3. Adrenal system
It can lead to fatigue, low energy, tiredness, etc.
4. Etc.

B.3. Diagnosis
If you are experience Cigarette Smoke allergy, after recording the family history and a complete physical exam. you doctor may order
1. Skin test
a. Intradermal test
It is one of most common test but time consuming( some patient may return for more 20 time for the injection) in diagnosis of allergy and depending to the symptoms, by injecting small amounts of diluted allergens into the top layers of the skin to see how the immune system react to them.
b. Skin prick testing
Similar to the Intradermal test, but the diagnosis involves in applying a drop of allergen into to punctures made on the skin.

2. Blood test ((RadioAllergoSorbent Test)
This is the test for evaluating of the levels of IgE-mediated food allergies react to a particular allergen. If you RAST score is higher than the predictive value for that food, 95% chance you will have an allergic reaction. Unfortunately, non-IgE mediated allergies cannot be detected by this method.

3. Challenge Tests
Because of the risk of anaphylaxis, most doctors will avoid the test unless it is absolutely necessary and the test is performed only in the hospital. In this test, suspected allergen package into capsule taken by patient and signs or symptoms of an allergic reaction are observed.

4. Etc.

B.4. Preventions
1. Quit smoking
Quit smoking to pretext yourself from cigarette smoking elevating allergiv symptoms to yourself and your family
In a study of "Challenge with environmental tobacco smoke exacerbates allergic airway disease in human beings." by Diaz-Sanchez D, Rumold R, Gong H Jr. (Hart and Louis Laboratory, Division Clinical Immunology, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California-Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA. posted in US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, researchers found that these studies provide the first experimental evidence that secondhand smoke can exacerbate allergic responses in human beings.

2. Reduce the risk of second hand smoke by staying in non-smoking sections in buildings or outdoor areas.

3. No smoking at home, in the cars, etc.

4. Avoid any enclosed areas where people smoke.

5. Etc.

B.5. Treatments
B.5.1. Conventional medicine
1. There is no specific treatment for cigarette smoking allergy, but depending to the symptoms. Medication includes bronchodilators, anti-allergics, antihistamines, NSAIDs, etc.
2. Allergic shot
Allergy shot, also known as immunotherapy, contains extracts from the most common substance which people are allergic to, including pollen, insects, pets, etc., by providing long-term relief from certain symptoms. In some people, after series of allergic shot, the disease is cured.

B.6.2. Nutritional supplements
1. Antioxidants
Since Allergies are caused by immune over reaction of certain harmless substance, enhancing immue system is one of the best way to prevent and treat them as some researchers suggested that allergies may be caused by weakened immune system over aggression. Vitamin A, E, C are antioxidants and free radical scavengers, they protect the immune system from free radicals attack and help to reduce levels of histamine in the blood. For more information of antioxidants and health effects

2. Vitamin D
According to the article " Vitamin D deficiency may be a factor in development of allergies posted in Washing Post, Monday, March, 7, 2011, " Allergies and Vitamin D, Youths low in 'sunshine vitamin' may be more prone to allergies",the author wrote that analyzed data on 6,590 people, roughly half of them 21 years of age and younger and half older. The group was deemed representative of the U.S. population. Vitamin D levels were determined by blood tests, as was sensitivity to 17 common allergens. Among the youths, food and environmental allergies were greater in those with lower levels of Vitamin D. Young people deficient in Vitamin D were about twice as likely as those with higher levels of the nutrient to have peanut or ragweed allergies and nearly five times as likely to be allergic to oak.

3. B-complex
in a study of "Vitamin B-6 deficiency impairs interleukin 2 production and lymphocyte proliferation in elderly adults." by Meydani SN, Ribaya-Mercado JD, Russell RM, Sahyoun N, Morrow FD, Gershoff SN., USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, MA 02111. posted in US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, researchers found that Vitamin B-6 deficiency impairs in vitro indices of cell-mediated immunity in healthy elderly adults. This impairment is reversible by vitamin B-6 repletion.

4. N-accetyl-cysteine (NAC)
It is an antioxidant and an amino acid precursor to glutathione which helps to strengthen immune system against cold, flu and allergy and enhances the respiratory system functioning.

5. Coenzyme Q10
It is an immune and nervous system enhancer, according to the article of "CoQ10 Helps the Immune System and Brain Function" by A.S. Gissen, posted in, the author wrote that In 1970, it was first reported that CoQ6 and CoQ10, when administered to rats, significantly enhanced immune cells' ability to kill bacteria, as well as elevated their antibody response.

6. Alpha lipoic acid
Alpha lipoic acid is another antioxidant which promotes the immune system by enhabcing the function of other antioxidants such as vitamin C, E, glutathione, etc. according to the article of "A relatively unknown antioxidant, alpha-lipoic acid, may be more potent than vitamins C and E" by Robert Sander, the author wrote that Because both alpha-lipoic acid and dihydrolipoic acid are antioxidants, their combined actions give them greater antioxidant potency than any natural antioxidant now known, Packer says. He notes another property of alpha-lipoic acid that makes it a great antioxidant. Since it is soluble in both water and fat, it can move into all parts of the cell to neutralize free radicals. Vitamin C, on the other hand, is limited to the watery parts of cells because it is soluble only in water; while vitamin E is soluble only in fat and sticks to the fatty parts of cells.
8. Digestive enzyme
Digestive enzymes are absolutely vital to human health, they break down large protein molecules, so essential nutrients, vitamins and minerals can be easily absorbed.
According to the article of "Digestive Enzymes Combat Leaky Gut and Food Allergy" , he wrote that toxin damage causes tiny holes to form in the normally tight barrier between the cells lining the GI Tract (leaky gut), which allows relatively large molecules of food protein to pass through and encounter the immune surveillance (60% + of body’s overall immune system is in and around the GI tract), which then “tricks” the immune system into “believing” the foreign protein from a food is a threat to the body. This sets up an attack mode against perfectly nutritious food protein, which is called a food (and/or “brain”) allergy.

9. Minerals
a. Zinc
It corrects the digestive system cause of allergy as a result of deficient production of stomach acid.
b. Calcium
It beside is considered as essential mineral for healthy bone, calcium is also important to reduce the risk of allergy. According to the study of "Calcium-deficiency rickets in a four-year-old boy with milk allergy." by Davidovits M, Levy Y, Avramovitz T, Eisenstein B.(Nephrology Unit, Children's Medical Center, Petah Tiqva, Israel) posted in US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, researchers found that These findings were thought to be the result of dietary calcium deficiency caused by the prolonged elimination from his diet of cow milk and milk products because of allergy. Adequate intake of calcium resulted in rapid improvement.
c. Potassium
It enhance the adrenal gland function, thus reducing the symptoms of allergy cause of fatigue, weakness, tiredness
d. Magnesium
It is vital to relieve the allergy symptom of asthma and respiratory problems
e. Etc.

10. Etc.

B.6.3. Herbs
1. Panax Ginseng
In a study of "Effects of Red Ginseng extract on allergic reactions to food in Balb/c mice." by
Sumiyoshi M, Sakanaka M, Kimura Y. (Division of Functional Histology, Department of Functional Biomedicine, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Shitsukawa, Toon City, Ehime 791-0295, Japan.) posted in US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, researchers suggested that It may also protect against sensitization to antigens as an immunomodulator by increasing intestinal IgA secretion without affecting antigen-specific IgE levels. In conclusion, Red Ginseng roots may be a natural preventative of food allergies.

2. Garlic
It is best known for treating cold and flu and enhances immune system against alll types of foreign invasion. According to the study of "Immunomodulatory Effects of Aged Garlic Extract"
Eikai Kyo, Naoto Uda, Shigeo Kasuga and Yoichi Itakur, Posted in the "Journal of Nutrition" in March 2001, researchers strongly suggest that AGE (Aged Garlic Extract) could be a promising candidate as an immune modifier, which maintains the homeostasis of immune functions; further studies are warranted to determine when it is most beneficial.

3. Grape seed extract
Grape seed extract is best known for its antioxidant property in delay aging, it also acts as a natural histamine inhibitor, thus reducing the risk of allergic responses.

4. Licorice root
Beside is nest known to lower stomach acid levels, relieve heartburn and indigestion, licorice root is also boost the levels of interferon of immune system to fight off attacking viruses. According to the article of "Licorice, plantain and nettle herbs used in the treatment of Allergies" posted in Bitteroot restorationthe author wrote that This ( Licorice root) can actually help to counteract many of the symptoms that are associated with allergies.: It also contains substances which work to thin the mucus and soothe to respiratory passages, which can reduce irritation that often accompanies allergies and their symptoms.

5. Turmeric
Turmeric paste has been used in traditional herbal medicine as an antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory agent, it also helps to treat allergy. According to an article "Vitamin D and turmeric for allergies" by Joe Graedon and Teresa Graedon posted in Washington Post, May 11-2009, the authors wrote that In animal studies, turmeric prevents the release of histamine from mast cells (Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, September 2008). If it works similarly in humans, this would prevent allergy symptoms from developing.

6. Sting Netttle
Sting Netttle contains antihistaminics which has been used as cream in treating symptoms of allergy. In a study of "Nettle extract (Urtica dioica) affects key receptors and enzymes associated with allergic rhinitis." by Roschek B Jr, Fink RC, McMichael M, Alberte RS.(HerbalScience Group LLC, 1004 Collier Center Way, Suite 200, Naples, FL 34110, USA.) posted in US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, researchers found that Through the use of DART TOF-MS, which yields exact masses and relative abundances of compounds present in complex mixtures, bioactives have been identified in nettle that contribute to the inhibition of pro-inflammatory pathways related to allergic rhinitis. These results provide for the first time, a mechanistic understanding of the role of nettle extracts in reducing allergic and other inflammatory responses in vitro.

7. Butterbur
Has been used over thousand of years in herbal medicine in treating symptoms of allergy, including to treat coughs,, asthma, stress, muscle relaxant, etc..According to the article of "Allergy" posted in The University of Michigan health System, the article indicated Two double-blind studies have compared butterbur extract to standard antihistamine drugs in people with hay fever. The first compared it with the drug cetirizine (Zyrtec) and found the drug and butterbur extract relieved symptoms equally well. However, cetirizine caused significantly more adverse effects, including a high rate of drowsiness.4 The second study compared butterbur extract with fexofenadine (Allegra) and placebo. Butterbur extract was as effective as fexofenadine at relieving symptoms, and both were significantly better than placebo.

8. Ginkgo
Ginkgo leaves contain ginkgolides, which inhibit platelet-activating factor cause of asthma and allergies. according to the study of "Ginkgolides Antagonizing Some Effects of Platelet-activating Factor in Vitro" vy Dong JC, Li M, Shi ZY (Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical University) posted in, researchers found that exposure of guinea pigs' bronchus to PAF in vitro resulted in a loss of beta-adrenergic receptors and responses to isoproterenol, and this effect of PAF was prevented by prior incubation of the guinea pigs' bronchus with ginkgolides (P < 0.05). The results showed ginkgolides were a potent PAF antagonist.

9. Etc.

B.6.4. Traditional Chinese medicine
Te Xiao Bi Min Gan Wan
a.The formula contains specific herbs used in treating nasal and sinus congestion, sinus headache, itchy eyes, sneezing, and runny & stuffy nose by strengthening the lung Qi to protect the respiratory track by eliminating wind and toxins.
b. Ingredients
1. Xin Yi Hua (Lily Magnolia Flower)
Main use: Disperses Wind-Cold, Unblocks the nose,...
2.Cang Er Zi (Siberian Cocklebur Leaf and Stem)
Main use: Dispels Wind, Clears Heat, Expels toxins,...
3. Huo Xiang (agastache)
Main use: Transforms Dampness and Turbidity Stops vomiting,...
4. Bai Zhi( Angelica Root)
Main use: Expels Wind, Dries Dampness, Resolves oedema, Expels pus,...
5. Lian Qiao (Forsythiae Fruit)
Mian use: Clears Heat, Expels toxins, Resolves abscesses, Dissolves nodules,..
6. Jin Yin Hua ( Honeysuckle Flower)
Main use: Clears Heat, Expels toxins,...
7. Feng Fang (Ledebouriella Root)
Main use: Expels Wind, Releases the Exterior, Disperses Dampness, Calms pain,...
8. Gao Ben (Lovage Root)
Main use: Releases the Exterior, Disperses Dampness; and Cold, Expels Wind,...
9. Pu Gong Ying (Dandelion)
Main use: Clears Heat, Expels toxins, Drains Dampness,...
10. Chuan Xiong (Szehuan Lovage Root)
Main use: Moves Blood and Qi, Expels Wind, Calms pain,....
11. Man Jing Zi (Vitex Fruit)
Main use: Drains and Disperse Wind-Heat, Clears Heat from the head and eyes,...
12. Shi Shang Bai (Selaginella)
Main use: Clears Heat, Reduces Toxicity, Drains Damp-Heat,....

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