Wednesday, 27 September 2017

Food Therapy: Coffee and Coffee Caffeine Intake and Risk of Gallstone and Gallstone Diseases

By Kyle J. Norton


In compared to herbal medicine, food therapy even takes longer to ease symptoms, depending to stages of the treatment which directly address to the cause of disease.

Epidemiological studies, linking coffee consumption in reduced risk of gallstone, but not gallstone disease have been contradictory.

Gallstone is a stone formed within the gallbladder out of bile components as a result of building up of undissolved cholesterol over a prolonged period of time.

Coffee, a popular and social beverage all over the world, particular in the West, made from roast bean from the Coffea plant, native to tropical Africa and Madagascar.

In the review of 174 cases of gallstones determined by ultrasonography, 104 cases of postcholecystectomy, and 6889 controls of normal gallbladder in the total of 7637 men received a health examination at four hospitals of the Self-Defense Forces (SDF) with 174 cases of prevalent gallstones, 50 had been aware of having gallstones, researchers found that coffee and coffee caffeine drinkers express a high risk of gallstone incidence in compared to non drinkers.

In these group of middle-aged Japanese men, the relative odds ratios of gallstone disease 1.7 for coffee consumption of five cups or more per day vs. no consumption and 2.2 for caffeine intake of 300 mg/day or more vs. less than 100 mg/day.

Obviously, these findings contradicted to other studies in support of risk of gallstone reduced by coffee and caffeine intake, including the study conducted by Harvard School of Public Health.

Other, in the review literature of database from PubMed and EMBASE of all published studies before June 2015 researchers at The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University files the following results
1. Coffee intake regularly and daily had a significantly reduced risk of gallstone disease, in related females, but not in males. based on prospective studies.
2. For patients drinking one cup of coffee per day, the risk of of gallstone disease was 0.95
3. For patients drinking 2, 4 and 6 cups of coffee per day, the estimated RRs of gallstone disease reduced to 0.89 (95% CI, 0.79 to 0.99), 0.81 and .75 respectively.
4, Coffee intake showed a linear association to ameliorated risk of gallstone diseases.

Interestingly, in a cohort of 80,898 women age 34-59 years in 1980 who had no history of gallstone disease, during 20 years of follow-up, researchers filed the below results
1. Compared to non caffeine coffee drinkers women, the multivariate relative risks of gallstone disease with cholecystectomy in compared to consistent intake of caffeinated coffee (0, 1, 2-3, and > or =4 cups/day) were 1.0, 0.91, 0.78, and 0.72 respectively.
2. Coffee caffeine intake was inversely associated to risk of cholecystectomy.
3. Caffeine intake (< or =25, 26-100, 101-200, 201-400, 401-800, and >800 mg/day) is linearly associated to reduced risk of gallstone disease with multivariate relative ratio of 1.0, 1.03, 1.01, 0.94, 0.85, and 0.85 4. Decaffienated coffee was not associated with risk.

There is no doubt that the study addresses a significantly inverse association in reduced risk of gallstone disease among coffee drinkers linearly.

Taking altogether, the contradictory result may warrant a further study, before one can make a decision of the effect of coffee and coffee caffeine in concern of risk of gallstone, but not in the attnuated risk of symptomatic gallstone disease.


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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton, Master of Nutrients
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

Sources
(1) Relation of coffee, green tea, and caffeine intake to gallstone disease in middle-aged Japanese men by Ishizuk H1, Eguchi H, Oda T, Ogawa S, Nakagawa K, Honjo S, Kono S.(PubMed)
(2) Systematic review with meta-analysis: coffee consumption and the risk of gallstone disease by Zhang YP1, Li WQ1, Sun YL1, Zhu RT1, Wang WJ1.(PubMed)
(3) A prospective study of coffee consumption and the risk of symptomatic gallstone disease in men by Leitzmann MF1, Willett WC, Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Spiegelman D, Colditz GA, Giovannucci E.(PubMed)

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