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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.
Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are medical condition mostly caused by work related occupations and working environment, affecting patients’ muscles, joints, tendons, ligaments and nerves and developing over time. According to a community sample of 73 females and 32 males aged 85 and over underwent a standardised examination at home, musculoskeletal pain was reported by 57% of those interviewed(*).
Types of Musculo-Skeletal disorders in elder
3. Rheumatoid Arthritis
4. Polymalagia Arthritis
5. Cervical myleopathy and spinal canal stenosis
7. Low back pain
Gout mostly effected one joint is an acute and recurrent condition of arthritis as a result of uric acid building up in blood, inducing joint inflammation.
1. Quercetin and Rutin
Quercetin is a plant pigments belongings to the group of flavonoids and its conjugate rutin is a quercetin-3-O-rutinoside and sophorin, according to Dr. Zhu JX and research team at the School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University expressed inhibition of enzyme activities in mouse liver in relation to their absorption and metabolism, and their potential application to treat gout and hyperuricemia(161). Dr. Shi Y and Dr. Williamson G said" quercetin treatment, plasma uric acid concentrations were significantly lowered by -26·5 µmol/l (95 % CI, -7·6, -45·5; P=0·008), without affecting fasting glucose, urinary excretion of uric acid or blood pressure" in a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial(162). The antioxidant also exerted a strong anti-inflammatory effect that may be useful for the treatment of acute gouty arthritis, TianJin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine(163)
Morin (3,5,7,2′,4′-pentahydroxyflavone), a phytochemical found in the twigs of Morus alba L. documented in traditional Chinese medicinal literature to treat conditions akin to gout, was demonstrated to exert potent inhibitory action on urate uptake in rat renal brush-border membrane vesicles(164). In the study of Ramulus Mori, the branch of Morus alba, is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions to treat gout and hyperuricemia, researchers at the Nanjing University suggested that the effectiveness of the herbal medicine in treating gout, probably due to the presence of antioxidants, including morin(165).
According to the Nanchang University, luteolin exhibited a stronger synergistic effect with kaempferol than did morin at the lower concentration(166).
3. Other phytochemicals
13 flavonoids including myricetin, kaempferol, icariin, apigenin, luteolin, baicalin, silibinin, naringenin, formonoetin, genistein, puerarin, daidzin and naringin dihydrochalcone selected to investigate for their hypouricemic action in mice, also significantly reduced liver uric acid level in hyperuricemic animals(167).
Myricetin is one of the flavonoid class of polyphenolic compounds, found abundantly in fruits and vegetables, including berries.
According to Dr. Li Y and colleagues, Myricetin and luteolin expressed binding to the xanthine oxidase and cyclooxygenase-2 in attenuate the complex pathogenesis of gout, a metabolic disease(168). The Sri Ramakrishna Institute of Paramedical Sciences study also exhibited the protective effect of asepigallocatechin, acacatechin, myricetin, naringenin, daidzein and glycitein in reduced the expression of in gout patients(169).
Icariin, a flavonol glycoside, type of flavonoid is a 8-prenyl derivative of kaempferol 3,7-O-diglucoside. According to the Nanjing University, icariin exhibited anti hyperuricemic and over expression of gout effects through inhibition on the liver xanthine oxidase (XOD) activities(167).
Apigenin, a natural product belonging to the flavone class, remarkedly lowered serum uric acid levels in potassium oxonate induced hyperuricemic mouse, according to the study by the Beijing Institute of Pharmacology & Toxicology(173). Apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucoside, derivative of apigenin isolated from Olea europaea leaf (Ph.Eur.) extract, exhibited strongly the anti-gout property through expression of inhibitory effects on xanthine oxidase (XO)(174).
According to Dr. Li Y and colleagues, Myricetin and luteolin expressed binding to the xanthine oxidase and cyclooxygenase-2 in attenuate the complex pathogenesis of gout, a metabolic disease(168).
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(162) Quercetin lowers plasma uric acid in pre-hyperuricaemic males: a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial by Shi Y1, Williamson G1.(PubMed)