Tuesday, 7 January 2020

Indicaxanthin Processes a Significant Prooxidant Activity

By Kyle J. Norton

Prooxidants are endobiotics or xenobiotics associated with the induction of oxidative stress either by generating free radicals (ROS) or inhibiting antioxidant systems.

Reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen. Without being controlled by antioxidants, ROS can induce a domino's effect by stealing an electron from other molecules, leading to a continued reaction that cannot stop until all single electrons are paired or inhibited by the presence of antioxidant molecules.

Free radicals are unstable molecules with unpaired electrons in the outermost ring produced daily internally including cell metabolism and externally including the air we breathe and the food we eat.

Antioxidants are stable atoms produced either by the host body or intake of dietary antioxdant rich food.

In this cascade, free radicals overexpression induces oxidative stress. A major cause of protein, lipid and cell damage increase risk of the early onset of many chronic diseases.

In other words, oxidative stress is an imbalanced ratio of free radicals and antioxidants. the condition has been found to cause damage of protein, and lipid damage and alternation of DNA.

Most common diseases or syndromes associated with the onset of oxidative stress are aging, cardiovascular diseases (CVD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic kidney disease, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer caused by irregular cell growth due to the alternation of cell DNA.

In a healthy individual, the production of antioxidant enzymes by the body is more than enough to counter the negative effect of free radical produced by the cell metabolism to produce energy and external sources such as environment pollution and the food we eat.

There are many risk factors that can increase the overexpression of free radicals, including fried foods, alcohol, tobacco smoke, pesticides, air pollutants.

Dr. Dergham M, in the examination of prooxidant and proinflammatory potency of air pollution, wrote, "Organic chemicals adsorbed on the three PM₂.₅₋₀.₃ samples (i.e., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) were able to induce the gene expression of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (i.e., Cytochrome P4501A1 and 1B1, and, to a lesser extent, NADPH-quinone oxidoreductase-1)".

And, "Moreover, intracellular reactive oxygen species within BEAS-2B cells exposed to the three PM₂.₅₋₀.₃ samples induced oxidative damage (i.e., 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine formation, malondialdehyde production and/or glutathione status alteration)".

Indicaxanthin is phytochemicals in the class of red and yellow indole-derived pigments of Betacyanins, belongings to the group of Betalains found abundantly in beets, chard, etc.

On finding a potential compound that processes anti-inflammatory activity researchers examined the indicaxanthin pro-oxidant activity.

In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, indicaxanthin promotes the synthesis of anti-inflammatory prostaglandins by modulating the arachidonate (AA) metabolism associated with inflammation.

The anti-inflammatory activity of indicaxanthin was attributed by modulating the redox status of LPS-stimulated macrophages in the induction of inflammatory response by preventing activation of production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2).

Furthermore, the concentration between 50 and 100 µM is most effective. However, indicaxanthin did not have any effect in the absence of LPS.

Taken altogether, indicaxanthin may be considered a prooxidant as an anti-inflammatory remedy, pending to the confirmation of the larger sample size and multicenter human study.



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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

Sources
(1) Pro-oxidant activity of indicaxanthin from Opuntia ficus indica modulates arachidonate metabolism and prostaglandin synthesis through lipid peroxide production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages by M.Allegraa, F.D’Acquisto, L.Tesorierea, A.Attanzioa, and M.A.Livrea. (Science Direct)

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