Thursday, 20 June 2019

Phytochemical Alliin Inhibits the Onset of Neuro-Degenerative Diseases in Vitro

By Kyle J. Norton

Neuroprotection is an action induced the preservation of neuronal structure and/or function, including the use of medicines and herbs.

In other words, neuroprotection protects the neuronal integrity against the reduction in the rate of neuronal loss over time, particularly in neurodegenerative disease.

Neurodegenerative disease is the class of condition associated with the progressive loss of neuron occurred mostly in older adults, including dementia, with the most common being Alzheimer`s disease (AD).

According to the statistic, dementia affects over 47.5 million people worldwide, approximately 58 percent are living within low and middle-income countries. 

Believe it or not, 5.8 million Americans of all ages are living with Alzheimer's dementia in 2019 and two-thirds of people with Alzheimer's disease are women.

Conventionally, there is no cure for dementia. The purpose of the medications that are used for the treatment of dementia is to improve dementia symptoms and slow down the progression of the disease. 

Some researchers concern that Alzheimer's disease in people younger than the age of 60 was up  5 percent over the past few decades may be correlated to the promotion of a high-fat diet in the US.

Dr. Ruan Y, the lead scientist wrote, "A higher dietary saturated fat intake was significantly associated with an increased risk of 39% and 105% for AD (RR: 1.39; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.94) and dementia (RR: 2.05; 95% CI: 1.06, 3.98), respectively".

And, "Dose-response analysis indicated a 4 g/day increment of saturated fat intake was related to 15% higher risk of AD (RR: 1.15; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.31)".

Alliin (S-allyl-L-cysteine-S-oxide) is a phytochemical compound sulfoxide, a derivative of the amino acid cysteine, belonging to the class of sulfur compounds, found abundantly in fresh garlic and onion.

In the urgency to discover a natural and potential compound for the treatment of neurodegenerative disease, scientists examined the alliin neuroprotective activity.

In vitro, alliin exerted a significant effect to protect neuronal cells integrity and viability against beta-amyloid (A) toxicity and apoptosis. 

Furthermore, also in vitro, alliin inhibited oxidative stress caused by overexpression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells in facilitating several neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD).

In lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated 3T3-L1 used in biological research on adipose tissue, incubation in a period of 24 h together with 100 μmol/L alliin, alliin prevented the increase of proinflammatory cytokines in the liver, muscle, heart and brain cells through its antioxidant activity.

The inhibition of inflammation of alliin was attributed to the decreased expression of the ERK1/2 pathway involved in the expression of oxidative stress and inflammation.

In other words, alliin protects the brain cells by suppressing the LPS inflammatory signals by generating an anti-inflammatory gene expression.

Taken altogether, alliin may be considered supplements for the neuroprotection, depending on the confirmation of the larger sample size and multicenter human study.

Intake of alliin in the form of supplement should be taken with extreme care to prevent overdose acute liver toxicity.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Neuroprotective Effects of Garlic A Review by BC Mathew and RS Biju. (PubMed)
(2) Alliin, a garlic (Allium sativum) compound, prevents LPS-induced inflammation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by Quintero-Fabián S1, Ortuño-Sahagún D2, Vázquez-Carrera M3, López-Roa RI. (PubMed)
(3) Dietary Fat Intake and Risk of Alzheimer's Disease and Dementia: A Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies by bRuan Y1, Tang J1, Guo X1, Li K2, Li D. (PubMed)

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