Saturday, 22 June 2019

Bromelain Exerts Anti Inflammatory Effects on Airway Inflammation In Vivo

By Kyle J. Norton

Inflammation is a natural defense of the immune system that tries to protect the body against the insult from the foreign invasion.

Acute inflammation occurs quickly or within the hours and lasts a few days or weeks and the damage tissues are healed themselves after all pathogens are killed off.

However, if the immune system can not completely eradicate all invaders in the acute phase of infection, it will compromise, leading to chronic low-grade inflammation, a major cause of cardiovascular disease, arthritis, and diabetes.

Airway inflammation is a lung inflammatory caused by both allergens and immune mistakenly attacks the respiratory tissues.

Chronic airway disease predominantly asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been increased at an alarming rate in the US over the past 20 years.

According to the statistics provided by the WHO, globally, approximately 65 million people suffer from the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), causing the death of 3 million each year. and 334 million people suffer from asthma, affecting 14% of all children globally.

In the US, the prevalence of chronic airway disease was found to cause a major financial burden to society, with both direct and indirect costs.

Bromelain, a proteolytic enzyme found in pineapples (Ananas comosus) has been used in traditional medicine as an inflammatory agent and to treat pains, strains, and muscle aches and pains and ease back pain and chronic joint pain, skin diseases, etc.

With an aim to discover a natural compound for the treatment of airway inflammation, researchers examined the benefits of alternative asthma treatments, including the ability of bromelain to inhibit inflammation, accompanied by a lifestyle change.

Preexisting asthma via ovalbumin (OVA)-induced murine model of allergic airway disease (AAD) selected to the investigation were randomly assigned to receive phosphate buffered saline (PBS) only or bromelain in an intervention group.

According to the results of the sensitized female C57BL/6J mice with intraperitoneal OVA/alum and then challenged them with OVA aerosolization for 10 consecutive days followed by administering daily doses of PBS to the control group (n = 10) and bromelain (6mg/kg) in PBS to the bromelain (intervention) group (n = 10) on day 4, intervention group demonstrated a significant increase of anti-inflammatory activity observed by the reduced BAL total leukocytes (P < .05), eosinophils (P < .05), and cellular infiltrates via lung pathology (P < .005), compared to the control group.

Interesting, bromelain significantly reduced BAL CD4+ and CD8+ T cells ratio without affecting cell numbers in the spleen or hilar lymph node, an indication of reduced hyper-sensitivity of the immunity.

In other words, bromelain protects the airway inflammation in the asthmatic animals by inhibiting the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines through its anti-inflammation property.

Based on the findings, researchers wrote, "bromelain has a therapeutic effect in established AAD, which may translate into an effective adjunctive therapy in patients with similar conditions, such as allergic asthma, who have chosen to initiate treatment after the onset of symptoms".

Also, according to the results of another study included ovalbumin (OVA)-induced murine model of allergic airway disease (AAD) assigned to either saline, 2 or 6 mg/kg bromelain, twice daily for four consecutive days., bromelain treatment of AAD mice exerted a similar effect compared to the aforementioned experiment.

Bromelain reduced total BAL leukocytes, eosinophils, CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, CD4+/CD8+ T cell ratio, and IL-13, through its anti-inflammatory activity.

Dr. Secor ER Jr, the lead scientist wrote at the final report, "The reduction in AAD outcomes suggests that bromelain may have similar effects in the treatment of human asthma and hypersensitivity disorders".

Taken altogether, bromelain may be considered supplements for the prevention and treatment of allergic airway inflammation, pending to the confirmation of the larger sample size and multicenter human study.

Intake of bromelain in the form of supplement should be taken with extreme care to prevent overdose acute liver toxicity.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Bromelain limits airway inflammation in an ovalbumin-induced murine model of established asthma by Secor ER Jr1, Shah SJ, Guernsey LA, Schramm CM, Thrall RS. (PubMed)
(2) Bromelain exerts anti-inflammatory effects in an ovalbumin-induced murine model of allergic airway disease by Secor ER Jr1, Carson WF 4th, Cloutier MM, Guernsey LA, Schramm CM, Wu CA, Thrall RS. (PubMed)

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