Monday, 6 May 2019

Bromelain Kills Ovarian Cancer Cells in Vitro

By Kyle J. Norton

Ovarian cancer is a chronic condition characterized by irregular cell growth in the tissue of the ovary.

Most cases of ovarian cancer start in the cells on the surface of the inner lining of the tissue of the ovary.

In the very early stage of ovarian cancer, patients may not experience any specific symptoms. However, after penetrating into the deeper layers and increasing in size, ovarian tumors may cause symptoms of an abdominal mass, bloating, back pain, urinary urgency, constipation, pelvic pain, abnormal vaginal bleeding and buildup of fluid in the abdominal cavity, accompanied with general symptoms shared by other types of cancer.

At the advanced stage, the cancer cells can also travel a distance away from the ovary to infect other healthy tissues and organ, leading to secondary metastasis.

Ovarian cancer is classified into 5 stages
1. Stage 0,
If the cancerous cell has not penetrated in deeper tissue but in the surface of the ovarian lining.

2. Stage I
In stage I, The cancerous cells are no longer on the surface they have invaded into deep ovaries lining, but still completely inside the ovaries.

a. Stage IA1
The cancer is not ≤ 3 mm (1/8 inch) deep and ≤ 7 mm (1/4 inch) wide.
a.1. Stage IA1:
The spreading is < 3mm(1/8 inch) deep and & less than 7mm (1/4 inch) wide.
a.2. Stage IA2: The invasion area is ≥ 3 mm but ≤ 5 mm (about 1/5 inch) deep and & less than 7 mm (about 1/4 inch) wide.
b. Stage IB:
Cancer in this stage has invaded the connective tissue, & less than 5cm (2 inches).
b.1. Stage IB1:
Cancer is 4 cm large (1 3/4 inches).
b.2. Stage IB2:
Cancer is ≥ 4 cm (1 3/4 inches) but & less than 5cm (2 inch)

3. Stage II
In stage II, the cancerous cells have spread to distant tissues but are still within the lung.

4. Stage III
In this stage, cancerous cells have spread to the tissues immediately surrounding the lung.

5. Stage IV
In this stage, cancerous cells have spread to the tissues immediately outside of the ovaries, other distant parts of the body


Bromelain, a proteolytic enzyme found in pineapples (Ananas comosus) has been used in traditional medicine as an inflammatory agent and to treat pains, strains, and muscle aches and pains and ease back pain and chronic joint pain, skin diseases, etc.

With an aim to find a potential compound for the treatment of colon cancer, researchers evaluated the effect of a high quantity of bromelain from pineapple anticarcinogenic activity against A2780 ovarian cancer cell lines.

In order to prevent the homogenization, ultrafiltration, precipitation, and dialysis in contributing to heavy loss of bromelain, fresh pineapple juices from the flesh (PJ-F), core (PJ-C) and stem (PJ-S) were selected as a source of crude bromelain.

Bromelain concentrations of PJ-F, PJ-C, and PJ-S (1 μg/ml, 10 μg/ml, 100 μg/ml and 1000 μg/ml) were selected to the study.

According to the tested assays, a 100 μg/ml concentration of bromelain showed an exceptional efficiently to inhibit the cancer cells without affecting the nearby normal cells.

Based on the basis of morphological alterations using fluorescent and inverted phase contrast microscopes, all concentration induced cancer cell death through apoptosis.

Additionally, the efficacy of fresh pineapple juices that kills cancer cells on A2780 cells was attributed to the inhibition of tumor colony forming abilities.

In other words, PJ-F, PJ-C, and PJ-S effectively suppressed the colony formation in cancer cells.

Based on the results, Dr. Madihah Binti Abdul Gani, the lead scientist said, "PJ-F, PJ-C, and PJ-S may have the potential to induce anticarcinogenic effects through apoptosis to A2780 and ... in vitro".

Taken altogether, bromelain found in fresh pineapple juices may be considered supplements for the prevention and treatment of ovarian cancer, pending to the confirmation of the larger sample size and multicenter human study.

Intake of bromelain in the form of supplement should be taken with extreme care to prevent overdose acute liver toxicity.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

Sources
(1)In Vitro Antiproliferative Activity of Fresh Pineapple Juices on Ovarian and Colon Cancer Cell Lines by Madihah Binti Abdul Gani, Rozita Nasiri, Javad Hamzehalipour Almaki, Fadzilah Adibah AbdulMajid, Mohsen Marvibaigi, Neda Amini, Siavash Hosseinpour Chermahini and Mirdawati Mashudin. (Springer Link)
(2) Ovarian Cancer - Epithelial Ovarian Cancer by Kyle J. Norton

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