Saturday, 18 May 2019

Whole Food Tomato Improves Glucose Tolerance in Diabetics in Vivo

By Kyle J. Norton

Glucose intolerance is a condition of the cluster of metabolic conditions associated with a higher than normal blood glucose levels.

Glucose tolerance is a test that examines how fast glucose is cleared from the blood.

Glucose intolerance is found in people with pre-diabetes or metabolic syndrome, the conditions of elevated blood glucose that is below the diabetes
* Impaired fasting glucose (IFG), a fasting blood glucose level that is above 6.0 mmol/L 
* Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT),  a blood glucose level that is over 7.8 mmol/L 2 hours after consuming 75g of glucose.

Glucose intolerance has been found to induce the risk of insulin resistance and increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes.

Most common symptoms of IGT are feeling thirsty, being tired or lethargic, frequent urination, and itchiness around the genitals., 

Out of many prevalent factors associated with the risk of IGT, some researchers suggested that the promotion of high-fat diet over the past few decades may have a strong and negative impact on the rise of glucose intolerance.

Dr. April J. Stull, wrote, "Glucose intolerance is a global health concern that encompasses glucose metabolism abnormalities such as impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and type 2 diabetes (T2D)".

And "The progression from IGT to T2D can be prevented or delayed by modifying the lifestyles in high-risk individuals, and these health benefits are well documented in various ethnicities with prediabetes across the world".

Tomato is red, edible fruit, genus Solanum, belonging to family Solanaceae, native to South America. Because of its health benefits, the tomato is grown worldwide for the commercial purpose
and often in the greenhouse.

With an aim to find a phytochemical for the improvement of glucose tolerance, researchers examined the effects of dry tomato peel (DTP) on diabetes induced by a high-saturated-fat (HSF) diet in vivo.

The study included BALB/c male mice (n=40) (8 weeks old, weighing 22.2±1.0 g) randomly divided into four treatment groups (10 mice/group): (a) high-fat control diet (HF Ctrl), which contains sunflower oil as a sole source of fat; (b) HSF/high-cholesterol (HC) diet; (c) HSF/HC diet supplemented with 9% DTP and (d) HSF/HC diet supplemented with 17% DTP for 12 weeks.

According to the results of the tested assay, supplementation with DTP not only increased plasma lycopene concentration but also reduced the development of indicators of metabolic syndrome which was found non-DTP treated groups.

In other words, DTP supplementation demonstrated a beneficial effect on glucose tolerance through increasing insulin sensitivity in the tested subject.

Also, in high-fat diet (HF)-induced obese mice treated by tomato vinegar beverage (TVB), researchers found that TVB not only showed a significant anti-obesity activity by decreasing fatty acid β-oxidation and carnitine palmitoyltransferase activities in HF-fed mice but also improved glucose tolerance, hyperinsulinemia compared to control.

More precisely, TVB exerted anti-diabetic effect by TVB significantly increased glucokinase activity and decreased glucose-6-phosphatase activity in the liver,  associated with the enhanced glucose metabolism in obese mice. 

The findings strongly suggested that TVB inhibits glucose intolerance in obese mice through several mechanisms, including glucose metabolism.

Taken altogether, tomato processed a high amount of lycopene may be considered a dietary supplements for the improvement of glucose tolerance, pending to large sample size and multicenter human study.

Intake of lycopene in the form of supplement should be taken with extreme care to prevent overdose acute liver toxicity.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Effect of dry tomato peel supplementation on glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, and hepatic markers in mice fed high-saturated-fat/high-cholesterol diets by Zidani S1, Benakmoum A2, Ammouche A3, Benali Y4, Bouhadef A4, Abbeddou S. (PubMed)
(2) Anti-obesity and anti-insulin resistance effects of tomato vinegar beverage in diet-induced obese mice by Seo KI1, Lee J, Choi RY, Lee HI, Lee JH, Jeong YK, Kim MJ, Lee MK. (PubMed)
(3) Lifestyle Approaches and Glucose Intolerance by April J. Stull, PhD, RD. (PubMed)

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