Wednesday, 15 May 2019

Bromelain, Stops Colon Cancer Developing in Vitro and Vivo

By Kyle J. Norton

Colon cancer is a medical condition caused by irregular cell growth in the colon tissues.

The colon formed part of the large intestine is a part of the digestive system with function to reabsorb fluids and eliminate waste products from the body.

Most cases of colon cancer start in the cells on the surface of the inner lining tissue, before colonizing the deeper tissues.

Colon cancer is one of the slowest growth of tumors. The onset of cancer may sometimes take 20 years before the cancer symptoms are developed.

Most cases of colon cancer in the early stage are asymptomatic due to the very small size of cancer. However, at the advanced stage, colon cancer cells can travel a distance away to infect other healthy tissues and organs.

According to the statistics, in the US, approximately 1 million people are living with colon cancer. Every year, approximately 100,000 new cases of colon cancer are diagnosed.

Overall, the lifetime risk of colorectal cancer is 1 in 22 (4.49%) for men, compared to 1 in 24 (4.15%) for women.

Older age, African-American race, people with family and personal history and inflammatory bowel disease and physical inactivity are some prevalent factors found in patients with the disease.

However, some researchers in the concern that colon cancer in the younger adult group suggested that the promotion of a high-fat diet over the past few decades may contribute to the increased risk of colon cancer in the US.

Dr. David Liska, MD, a colorectal surgeon at the Cleveland Clinic. wrote, "“The rise in colorectal rates in younger adults has been parallel to the rise in the obesity epidemic, so it’s reasonable to think that that’s a factor”.

And,  “Many of the risk factors for obesity are also risk factors for colon cancer, including a high-fat diet that’s high in red meat and low in vegetables, as well as being sedentary. But I’m seeing a lot of younger patients who are at a normal weight and have a healthy lifestyle, so there have to be other reasons”.

Bromelain, a proteolytic enzyme found in pineapples (Ananas comosus) has been used in traditional medicine as an inflammatory agent and to treat pains, strains, and muscle aches and pains and ease back pain and chronic joint pain, skin diseases, etc.

In the urgency to find a natural ingredient for the treatment of colon cancer, researchers examined the possible antiproliferative/proapoptotic effects of bromelain (from the pineapple stem Ananas comosus L., family Bromeliaceae) in a human colorectal carcinoma cell line and its potential chemopreventive effect in a murine model of colon cancer.

On human colon adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cells, according to the tested assays, administration of bromelain inhibited proteins expression associated with cell proliferation, anti-apoptosis, and reduction of reactive oxygen species production.

Furthermore, in vivo, bromelain exerts the similar effects on colon carcinogenesis through its antiproliferative and proapoptotic activity and enhanced chemopreventive actions.

In other words, bromelain protected the colonic cell viability by preventing the risk of developing aberrant crypt foci, polyps, and tumors induced by azoxymethane.

Dr. Romano B, the lead scientist said, "Bromelain-containing foods and/or bromelain itself may represent good candidates for colorectal cancer chemoprevention".

In order to reveal more information about the bromelain property on colon cancer, researchers in the cancer team at the Wonkwang University examined the bromelain activity in Kras mutant human colorectal carcinoma cell lines and a mouse model harboring a Kras mutation.

In the Kras mutant colorectal carcinoma cell lines, administration of 50 μg/mL bromelain reduced the cell growth and proliferation correlated to the inhibition of enzyme ACSL-4 involved in the promotion of cancer cell growth, invasion, and hormonal resistance and exhibited the microRNAs (miRNAs) that regulate the gene expression of ACSL-4.

Compared to the Kras wild-type colorectal cancer cells, bromelain effectively exerts cytotoxic effects in Kras mutant colorectal cancer cells.

In other words, bromelain demonstrated a significant effect in reduced colon cancer cells growth and anti-apoptosis by blocking the gene expression associated with such action through regulating its microRNAs.

Based on the findings, Researchers said, "Differential expression of ACSL-4 is responsible for the differential action of bromelain in regulating ferroptotic cell death".

Taken altogether, bromelain may be considered supplements for the prevention and treatment of colon cancer, pending to the confirmation of the larger sample size and multicenter human study.

Intake of bromelain in the form of supplement should be taken with extreme care to prevent overdose acute liver toxicity.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) The chemopreventive action of bromelain, from pineapple stem (Ananas comosus L.), on colon carcinogenesis is related to antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects by Romano B1, Fasolino I, Pagano E, Capasso R, Pace S, De Rosa G, Milic N, Orlando P, Izzo AA, Borrelli F. (PubMed)
(2) Bromelain effectively suppresses Kras-mutant colorectal cancer by stimulating ferroptosis by Park S1, Oh J1, Kim M1, Jin EJ. (PubMed)
(3) This cancer is on the rise in young adults — and doctors don’t know why. (Yahoo Lifestyle)

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