Saturday, 6 December 2014

Women's Health - Premenstrual syndrome(PMS): The Effects of Fatty Acids(Revised edition with references)

By Kyle J. Norton 
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

 Premenstrual syndrome is defined as faulty function of the ovaries related to the women's menstrual cycle, effected over 70% to 90% of women in the US and lesser for women in Southeast Asia because of difference in living style and social structure. The syndrome also interferes women's physical and emotional states, and daily activities as a result of hormone fluctuation and occurs one to two weeks before menstruation and then declines when the period starts.
I. Types of Fat Acids
1. Mono-unsaturated fats
Mono-unsaturated have only one double bond between 2 carbon atoms in the chemical chain and the rest of the carbon atoms are single-bonded, therefore, mono-unsaturated fatty acids have a higher melting temperature than polyunsaturated fatty acids but lower than saturated fatty acids, liquid at room temperature. Since our body can not produce them, we have to take them regularly.

2. Poly-unsaturated fats
Poly-unsaturated fats contains 2 or more double bonds in the chemical chain. Since it is one hydrogen atom deficits on the molecule's surface, leading to significant lowering melting temperature than other fats. It is also liquid in the room temperature and contains most important essential fatty acids Omega 3 and 6. Since our body can not make them, we have to take them regularly.

3. Saturated fats
Saturated fat contains only saturated fatty acid radicals. Chemically, in saturated fats every member carbon atoms is surrounded by maximum number of hydrogen as a straight chain with all atoms packing together tightly.

4. Trans fats
 By adding hydrogen to the vegetable oils and eliminating some double bond in their chemical structures, to make the oils solid at room temperature, trans fats raise bad cholesterol (LDL) and lower the good cholesterol (HDL) and it can be found everywhere, including margarine, fast foods, vegetable shortening, baked foods, packaged foods and frozen foods.

II. The Effects
A. Liver
 Over consumption of saturated fat reduces function of liver(1) in secreting bile  and interference with liver in regulating function of pancreas in insulin production(1), elevating symptoms of PMS including menstrual cramp and pain(2)(3).

B. Prostaglandins hormones
1. Definition
Prostaglandins are found in most tissues and organs. They are produced by all nucleated cells except lymphocytes. Prostaglandins are generated from
a) Gamma linoneic acid ( GLA)
b) Arachidinic acid (AA)
c) Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)

2. How prostaglandins effect women with PMS
a. Gamma linoneic acid ( GLA)
GLA is also known as essential Omega 6 fatty acid, having anti-inflammatory properties found primarily in vegetable oils. It may also be converted from linolenic acid before converting to prostaglandins PGE1(5) with function in regulating the uterine contraction(4). If there are blockage caused abnormal function of fat and protein metabolism, imbalance of essential Omega 3 and 6 fatty acids(4) and nutrients deficiency(6), may induce imbalance of  prostaglandins hormones, to cause over contraction of uterine muscles(4).

b. Arachidinic acid (AA)
Arachidinic acid (AA) is also converted from linoleic acids after converting to dihomogamma-linolenic acid (DGLA).  Arachidinic acid (AA) deficiency or over abundant cause over production of PGE2 in inducing symptoms of PMS including menstrual pain and cramps(9) and reduced blood flow to the uterus(4)(8). Since meats contain high levels of AA(7), reducing intake of such products will help to restore the balance of prostaglandins hormone PG1 and PG2.

c. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)
Omega 3 fatty acid containing eicosapentaenoic acid is also known as also eicosapentaenoic acid converted from Alpha-linolenic acid(10). EPA is vital for the production of good prostaglandins PGE3 in lessening the risk of inflammation(11) and nervous symptoms of PMS(12).

Unbalance of Omega 3 and 6 fatty acids causes unbalance of hormone of members in the prostaglandins and weakens the liver in fatty acids metabolism, leading to increased risk of symptoms of premenstrual syndrome(3)(4)(5).

C. Saturated fat
Saturated fat is fat consisted of triglycerides and contained only saturated fatty acid radicals mainly from animals. It blocks the absorption of nutrients in the digestive system including essential fatty acids and vitamins and minerals(13), leading to unbalance of prostaglandins family and interfering liver in fat and protein metabolism(12), if consumed in large amount. By the way, saturated fat also enhances building up of cholesterol and triglycerides in your blood, causing numbers of disease including heart diseases and stroke(14).

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(1) Overfeeding polyunsaturated and saturated fat causes distinct effects on liver and visceral fat accumulation in humans. Rosqvist F1, Iggman D2, Kullberg J3, Cedernaes J4, Johansson HE1, Larsson A5, Johansson L6, Ahlström H3, Arner P7, Dahlman I7, Risérus U8 .(PubMed)
(2) The effects of a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet on markers of uterine contractility during parturition in the rat by Elmes MJ1, Tan DS, Cheng Z, Wathes DC, McMullen S.(PubMed)
(3) Reproductive hormones in plasma over the menstrual cycle in primarydysmenorrhea compared with healthy subjects by Liedman R1, Hansson SR, Howe D, Igidbashian S, McLeod A, Russell RJ, Akerlund M.(PubMed)
(4) The effects of prostaglandin E1 and prostaglandin E2 on in vitro myometrial contractility and uterine structure by Chiossi G1, Costantine MM, Bytautiene E, Kechichian T, Hankins GD, Sbrana E, Saade GR, Longo M.(PubMed)
(5) Physiology and pharmacology of prostaglandins by Konturek SJ, Pawlik W.(PubMed)
(6) Characterization of an arachidonic acid-deficient (Fads1 knockout) mouse model by Fan YY1, Monk JM, Hou TY, Callway E, Vincent L, Weeks B, Yang P, Chapkin RS.(PubMed)
(7) Contribution of meat fat to dietary arachidonic acid by Li D1, Ng A, Mann NJ, Sinclair AJ.(PubMed)
(8) [Imbalance of blood flow induced by sympathetic block was corrected by prostaglandin E1].[Article in Japanese by Okuda Y1, Kitajima T.(PubMed)
(9) Clinical use of misoprostol in nonpregnant women: review article by Choksuchat C.(PubMed)
(10) The Evidence for α-Linolenic Acid and Cardiovascular Disease Benefits: Comparisons with Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid by Fleming JA1, Kris-Etherton PM2.(PubMed)
(11) Dietary fatty acids and inflammatory markers in patients with coronary artery disease by Niknam M1, Paknahad Z2, Maracy MR3, Hashemi M4.(PubMed)
(12) Fishy business: effect of omega-3 fatty acids on zinc transporters and free zinc availability in human neuronal cells by De Mel D1, Suphioglu C2.(PubMed)
(13) Influence of intermittent fasting and high-fat diet on morphological changes of the digestive system and on changes of lipid metabolism in the laboratory mouse by Krízová E1, Simek V.(PubMed)
(14) Effect of a high saturated fat and no-starch diet on serum lipid subfractions in patients with documented atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease by Hays JH1, DiSabatino A, Gorman RT, Vincent S, Stillabower ME.(PubMed)

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