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Friday, 26 December 2014

(Preview) Most common diseases of 50 plus - Diseases of Central Nervous system - The Symptoms of Dementia

By Kyle J. Norton Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

         Diseases of Central Nervous system

                           Dementia



About 5-8% of all people over the age of 65 have some form of dementia, and this number doubles every five years above that age. Dementia is the loss of mental ability, severe enough to interfere with people's every life and Alzheimer's disease is the most common type of dementia in aging people.

IV. Symptoms and Complications of Dementia
Dementia is a neuropsychiatric disorder induced of cognitive impairment and behavioral disturbances. The behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are common, with a progressive loss of memory and other mental abilities, affecting a person's ability to perform usual tasks in everyday life.
A. Symptoms
A.1. Symptoms of Alzheimer's disease 
Alzheimer's disease is a brain disorder, affecting over 1 million people in US alone with well known  symptoms of lack of concentration (56%), tremors (56%), depression (44%), lack of cooperation (36%), and delusions (32%), psychotic symptoms (delusions, hallucinations, and delirium) and tremors, and emotional symptoms (tearfulness and apathy, lack of concentration and appetite change), according to Hospital de Cruces, Plaza de Cruces s/n, Barakaldo in a study of total of 1014 patients(177) and other symptoms of 

1. Increasing forgetfulness(178)
2. Communication difficulty(179)
3. Anxiety(180)
4. Mood and personal change(181)
5. Delay recall(183)
6. Repeat question(183)
7. Memory loss(182)
8 Aberrant motor behavior (184)
9. Sleep problems (184)
10. Eating problems (184) and
11. Agitation/aggression (184)
10. Etc.

A.2. Symptoms of Diminished quality of acetylcholine
If the nerves located in front of the brain perish, diminished quality of acetylcholine, it can cause language difficulty, memory loss, concentration problem and reduce mobile skills because of lacking reaction in muscular activity and refection.
Symptoms of deficiency of acetylcholine include(185)
1. Difficulty remembering names and faces after meeting people
2. Difficulty remembering peoples birthdays and numbers
3. Difficulty remembering lists, directions or instructions
4. Forgetting common facts
5. Trouble understanding spoken or written language
6. Forget where I put things 
7. Slowed and/or confused thinking
8. Difficulty finding the right words before speaking
9. Disorientation
10. Prefer to do things alone than in groups / social withdrawal
11. Rarely feel passionate
12. Feel despair and lack joy
13. Lost some of my creativity / lack imagination
14 Dry mouth
15. Etc.

A.3. Dementia due to long-term alcohol abuse
Dementia is common in patients with alcoholism. Most symptoms of alcohol dementia are also presented in other types of dementia, with a few qualitative differences(186) involved both cortical and subcortical pathology. According to the article, "What's alcohol-related dementia?" Alcohol dementia induced deterioration in intellectual function with memory not being specifically affected, such as disinhibition, loss of planning, and executive functions and a blithe disregard for the consequences of their behaviour,  affecting mostly of women in  the ages between 30 - 70  with the better rates better than for Korsakoff's Psychosis(187).
Other symptoms in deficits are most frequently observed on tasks of visuospatial function, memory(188) and higher-order (executive) tasks(189)

A.4. Multi-infarct dementia
Also known as vascular dementia, is the second most common form of dementia after Alzheimer's disease in older adults, caused by different mechanisms, affecting the vascular lesions in the brain.with major neurovegetative symptoms of depression unaccompanied by depressed mood/anhedonia in patients with clinically-diagnosed Alzheimer's disease (AD) and multi-infarct dementia (MID)(190).
Symptoms include memory deficits(192) such as
1. Confusion
2. Memory problems
3. Wandering Getting lost
and
4. At least one of behavioural or psychological symptom, such as appetite disturbances irritability and anxiety and emotional suppresion(such as laughing inappropriately, crying inappropriately)
(193), and
5. Difficulty following instructions, and 
6. Bladder incontinence
7. Bowel incontinence(191)

A.5. Dementia associated with Parkinson's disease
Parkinson disease (PD) is a disabling, progressive condition cause of cognitive deficits due to the interruption of frontal-subcortical loops that facilitate cognition and that parallel the motor loop, affecting motor function. These include olfactory deficit, sleep problems such as rapid eye movement behaviour disorder, constipation and male erectile dysfunction.(194).
Other symptoms due to to dopamine (DA) deficiency, include, dysexecutive behaviors(196), such as planning, abstract thinking, flexibility and behavioural control and postural disabilities(197) and
1. Constipation
2. Difficulty swallowing
3. Choking, coughing, or drooling
4. Excessive salivation
5. Excessive sweating
6. Loss of bowel and/or bladder control(195)

A.6. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD)
People who have eaten contaminated beef in many years, may be infected with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) without even knowing it. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is a quickly progressing and fatal disease,  characterized by rapidly progressive dementia. Initially, individuals experience problems with muscular coordination, personality changes, including impaired memory, judgment, and thinking and impaired vision. People with the disease also may experience insomnia, depression, or unusual sensations.(198).

A.7. Subdural hematoma
 Subdural hemorrhages, the accumulation of blood beneath the outer covering of the brain resulted from the rupture of blood vessel may cause an increase in tracranial pressure, leading compression and damage to delicate brain tissue. Acute subdural hematoma has a high mortality rate.
Other symptoms include
1. Intermittent numbness and weakness of extremity(199) and
2. Loss of consciousnes(201)
3. Irritability
4. Seizures
5. Pain
6. Headache
7. Dizziness
8. Disorientation
9. Weakness
10. Weakness or lethargy
11. Nausea or vomiting
12. Loss of appetite
13. Personality changes
14. Confused speech
15. Difficulty with balance or walking
16. Altered breathing patterns
17. Hearing loss or hearing ringing (tinnitus)
18. Blurred Vision
19. Deviated gaze, or abnormal movement of the eyes(200)
20. Etc.

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References
(177) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20920205
(178) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21315756
(179) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25356002
(180) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16166409
(181) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10796526
(182) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25481271
(183) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22122408
(184) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25065098
(185) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18849899
(186) http://www.nutritional-healing.com.au/content/articles-content.php?heading=Acetylcholine%20deficiency
(187) http://neurology.health-cares.net/alcohol-related-dementia.php
(188) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25119654
(189) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23347747
(190) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22164676
(191) http://www.rightdiagnosis.com/m/multi_infarct_dementia/symptoms.htm
(192) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24685627
(193) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4006603/
(194) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20642073
(195) http://www.helpguide.org/elder/parkinsons_disease.htm
(196) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25511521
(197) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25510818
(198) http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/cjd/detail_cjd.htm#186463058
(199) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11558288
(200) http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000713.htm