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Wednesday, 3 December 2014

(Preview) Most common diseases of 50 plus - Diseases of Central Nervous system - Dementia: The Types

 By Kyle J. Norton 
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

               Diseases of Central Nervous system

                                 Dementia


About 5-8% of all people over the age of 65 have some form of dementia, and this number doubles every five years above that age. Dementia is the loss of mental ability, severe enough to interfere with people's every life and Alzheimer's disease is the most common type of dementia in aging people.

I. Types of dementia
1. Alzheimer's disease
 Alzheimer's disease is a brain disorder named for German physician Alois Alzheimer(1). Alzheimer's destroys brain cells, causing problems with memory, thinking and behavior severe enough to affect language communication, memory, lifelong hobbies or social life. Alzheimer's gets worse over time, and it is fatal(2). Over 1 million people in US alone are currently afflicted by Alzheimer's disease because of degeneration of hippocampus and cerebral cortex(3) of the brain where memory, language and cognition(4) are located. With this mental disorder, brain cells gradually die and generate fewer and fewer chemical signals day by day resulting in diminished of functions. Overtime memory thinking as well as behavior deteriorates. Today, there is no known cure.

2. Absence of acetylcholine
 If the nerves located in front of the brain perish(5), causing diminished quality of acetylcholine may result of cognitive dysfunction(6) causes of language difficulty, memory loss, concentration problem and reduced moblile skills because of lacking reaction in muscular activity and refection(7) and anxiety- and depression-like behaviors(8).

3. Dementia due to long-term alcohol abuse
 Dementia is common in patients with alcoholism(9). Most classic is the Korsakoff's dementia resulted in extremely poor short term memory(10) and often associated with the memory losses of confabulations due to diminished processing resources and/or an encoding or retrieval deficit(11).

4. Multi-infarct dementia
Also known asvascular dementia , is the second most common form of dementia after Alzheimer's disease in older adults. It is caused by different mechanisms all resulting in vascular lesions(12) in the brain(13).

5. Dementia associated with Parkinson's disease
 Parkinson disease (PD) is a disabling, progressive condition. It is a cognitive deficits due to the interruption of frontal-subcortical loops that facilitate cognition and parallel the motor loop(15)(16) due to loss of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) dopamine (DA) neurons(14).

6. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD)
People who have eaten contaminated beef(18) for many years may be infected without even knowing it. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is a quickly progressing and fatal disease that consists of dementia(19), muscle abnormal functions(17).

7. Subdural hematoma
It is the accumulation of blood beneath the outer covering of the brain that result from the rupture of blood vessel(20)(21). Subdural hemorrhages may increase intracranial pressure(22), causes of compression and damage to delicate brain tissue. Acute subdural hematoma has a high mortality rate(23).

Other types of dementia include metabolic disorders, dementia due to long-term substance abuse, hypothyroidism, and hyperethyroidism.

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References
(1) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alzheimer%27s_disease
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25431401
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24548606
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25433211
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23035090
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24938789
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8713126
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22573727
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8949964
(10) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4058708
(11) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1944875
(12) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22705146
(13) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23596414
(14) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20696315
(15) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3181854/
(16)http://books.google.ca/books?id=886cQkUFjMgC&pg=PA28&lpg=PA28&dq=frontal-subcortical+loops+and+Parkinson%27s+disease&source=bl&ots=yikrA4hGSX&sig=xengrjZiGyFRIcC23gjNDLMTimQ&hl=en&sa=X&ei=6W98VNGxCYSWyQS504KgBg&ved=0CEUQ6AEwBQ#v=onepage&q=frontal-subcortical%20loops%20and%20Parkinson%27s%20disease&f=false
(17) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25342014
(18) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15825799
(19) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25315814
(20) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24313607
(21) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19139303
(22) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20220741
(23) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24698583