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Thursday, 18 December 2014

(Preview) Most common diseases of 50 plus - Diseases of Central Nervous system - Diseases causes of dementia

By Kyle J. Norton 
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

               Diseases of Central Nervous system

                                 Dementia


About 5-8% of all people over the age of 65 have some form of dementia, and this number doubles every five years above that age. Dementia is the loss of mental ability, severe enough to interfere with people's every life and Alzheimer's disease is the most common type of dementia in aging people.II. Causes of dementia

C. Diseases Causes of Dementia
C.1. Alzheimer's disease
Alzheimer's disease is a brain disorder named for German physician Alois Alzheimer. Alzheimer's destroys brain cells, effecting memory, thinking and behavior severe enough to affect language communication, memory, lifelong hobbies or social life.


C.2. Stroke (Vascular problems) 

Strokes caused by uncontrolled diet with high in saturated and trans fats, can lead to bad cholesterol building up(88) in blocking the circulation of blood to the body and increase volume of infarction, in the brain(89). If oxygen is not delivered to the brain cells, some cells die off and can not reproduce(90), causing stroke(89). Others happen, when a blood vessel in the brain ruptures(91), it causes the cells in your brain deprived of oxygen with symptoms of vascular dementia(92)(93)(94).
According to the
the prevalence, incidence, and factors associated with pre-stroke and post-stroke dementia  by University Department of Clinical Neurology, 10% of patients had dementia before first stroke, 10% developed new dementia soon after first stroke, and more than a third had dementia after recurrent stroke(95).

C.3. Dementia with Lewy bodies
Lewy bodies is a condition of spherical masses displaced other cell components with symptoms of
fluctuating cognitive ability with pronounced variations in attention and alertness, recurrent visual hallucinations and spontaneous motor features, including akinesia, rigidity and tremor(97). Abnormal aggregates of protein develop inside nerve cells are also found in Parkinson's disease (PD), Lewy Body Dementia and some other disorders.(96). 
According to Mayo Clinic in MRI analysis of the characterizing the tissue abnormalities characteristic of Alzheimer disease and DLB, loss of tissues due to increased amygdalar diffusivity in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) may be related to small cavity in the cytoplasm of a cell, a common pathology associated with Lewy body disease(98)

C.4. Fronto-temporal dementia
Fronto-temporal dementia (FTD) or Pick's disease is clinical syndrome caused by degeneration of the frontal lobe(lobes of the brain lying immediately behind the forehead) of the brain can lead to symptoms of depression and executive dysfunction triggering the loss of autonomy, the risk of fall and of malnutrition in elderly patients(100). Early diagnosis of fronto-temporal dementia (FTD) is often difficult because of the non-specific presentation, a delayed-gross estimation of injury or dysfunction of the frontal lobe(99).

C.5. Progressive supranuclear palsy
Progressive supranuclear palsy is  a condition of a movement disorder occurred as a result of damage to certain nerve cells with relatively specific patterns of atrophy, involving the brainstem, the latter frontoparietal regions, pontine tegmentum and the left frontal eye field(102) in the brain lead to serious and progressive problems with control of gait and balance, including an inability to aim the eyes properly(101).

C.6. Korsakoff's syndrome 
Korsakoff's syndrome, named after Sergei Korsakoff, a Russian neuropsychiatris is a neurological disorder caused by deficiency of Vitamin B1 (thiamine) in the brain and associated closely to chronic alcohol abuse and/or severe malnutrition, can lead to spontaneous alternation performance impaired in PTD accompanied by a significant reduction (30%) in phosphorylated synapsin I(103). Korsakoff's syndrome has been linked to neurotoxic effect of chronic alcohol consumption causes of medial thalami, mammillary bodies, and corpus callosum(104)
According to University of Campinas (Unicamp), beside the main cause of thiamine deficiency and viral infection or toxins in the blood, other adjunct factors, include magnesium depletion and chronic alcohol misuse, in the development of Korsakoff's syndrome(105)

C.7. Binswanger's disease
Binswanger disease also known as subcortical vascular dementia  is a type of small vessel vascular dementia caused by microscopic areas of damage to the deep layers of white matter in the brain, including mostly of glial cells and myelinated axons in transmitting signals from one region of the cerebrum to another and between the cerebrum and lower brain centers.  
Binswanger's disease frequency increase with age, independent of other risk factors, and are associated with white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) deficits in selected cognitive functions.(106), a progressive dementia, depression and "subcortical" dysfunction such as gait abnormalities, rigidity and neurogenic bladder(107). Control of hypertension may help prevent further progression of white matter disease(107).

C.8. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
 Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a condition of the progressive failure of the immune system caused by HIV, a lentivirus, originated HIV invasion of CNS by crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB), through progression of  chronic inflammation induced dysfunction in neurons and astrocytes(star-shaped glial cells in the brain)(108). The presence of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (in systemic inflammation) may also increase the risk of development of neurological dysfunction(109).

C.9.  Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD)
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a form of incurable, fatal, degenerative neurological disorder caused rapid decrease of mental function and movement due to the infectious replicate protein, including symptoms of  Mild Cognitive Impairment resembled the final stages of Alzheimer's disease, inexplicable visual disturbances(110).

C.10. Parkinson's disease 
Parkinson's disease is a condition of  a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system causes of shaking (tremors) and difficulty with walking, movement, etc. with dementia commonly occurring in the advanced stages of the disease. According to study, in a survey of all stages of disease and 18.38 % demented from patients, caregiver and both, spychotic symptoms, mood/Apathy, and impulse control disorders are accounted for 66.63 % of the variance(111).

C.11. Huntington's disease
Huntington's disease is a condition of a neurodegenerative genetic disorder affected the muscle coordination causes of cognitive decline and psychiatric problems(17). Impairments of  patients with Huntington's disease include speed of processing, initiation, and attention measuresin linear regression(112).

C.12. Motor Neurone disease (MND)
Motor neuron disease is a group of neurological disorders affected the motor neurones, located in the central nervous system (CNS), caused of cognitive and behavioural changes(113)

C.13. Multiple Sclerosis
Multiple Sclerosis is a condition of an inflammatory disease due to the damage of the fatty myelin sheaths around the axons of the brain and spinal cord, responded to vision, speech, walking, writing, and memory(114).

C.14. Obesity
Midlife and late-life obesity may increase the risk of dementia. In 480 persons with incident dementia, risk of dementia was associated to patients with for obese (BMI >30) and uderweight persons (BMI <20) but not overweight (BMI >25-30)(115).

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References
(88) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25466009
(89) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21435380
(90) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24627643  
(91) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24223607
(92) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21778438 
(93) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19673608 
(94) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23902701  
(95) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19782001
(96) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lewy_body
(97) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22812926
(98) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20513818
(99) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16227556
(100) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19748373
(101) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22519566
(102) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16401739
(103) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22507301
(104) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22496200
(105) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20646296
(106) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7604429
(107) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9861880
(108) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16540457
(109) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8498837
(110) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17179914
(111) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22527230 
(112) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Huntington%27s_disease
(113) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20629124
(114) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20031302
(115) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19273752